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Vol 09, No 1, Article 05, PDF

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Levels and phases in the group process: Peter Kutter

Group phenomena are so complex that it is a difficult task for the reader to understand what goes on in both the group as a whole and in each individual at one time. There have been many attempts to develop theories which enable the group leader to orient himself/herself in any given phase of the group process. But, insofar as I am acquainted with the relevant literature, I might say that we are still a long way from being able to accept a general theory about levels and phases of the group process.

The current theories were developed largely independently of one another, at different times and in different centres of the group movement and of group psychotherapy, primarily in England through Bion and the Tavistock approach in London, then in the uSA, by Kurt Lewin through the theories of group dynamics. Additional work has been done in the group therapeutic centre in South America, where Pichon-Rivière (1970) started a South American group movement in Boenos Aires. The German contributions by Argelander (1963/64), Heigl-Evers & Heigl (1968), ohlmeier (1975) and Kutter (1971 and 1976) in the relevant English literature have remained largely unnoticed.

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