Resource List 10


Compiled under the direction of Jacqueline A. Carleton Ph.D. (and her interns) for the IJP (July, 2017).

Herbine-Blank, T., Kerpelman, D.M., & Sweezy, M. (2016). Intimacy from the Inside Out. 

Watts, A. (2017). Psychotherapy East & West.

West, M. (2016). In the Darkest Places: Early relational trauma and borderline states of mind.

Maletic, V. & Raison, C.L. (2017). The New Mind-body Science of Depression.

Craske, M. (2017). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

Herbine-Blank, T., Kerpelman, D.M., & Sweezy, M. (2016). Intimacy from the Inside Out: Courage and Compassion in Couple Therapy.
Reviewed by Rachel Baum, New York University.

Intimacy from the Inside Out (IFIO) by Toni Herbine-Blank, Donna M. Kerpelman, and Martha Sweezy is geared toward psychotherapists who are seeking an alternative method for practicing couples therapy. IFIO therapy stems from Internal Family Systems therapy (IFS), a model developed by Richard Schwartz in the 1980s as an approach to working with individuals and families, and later expanded to include couples. IFIO is an experiential model of couples therapy that applies the concepts of IFS to intimate relationships as a “vehicle for the growth and healing of the couple and the individual” (p. 14).  IFIO couple’s therapy involves a two-step process of planning for the predictable, universal issues that couples face and responding skillfully to other unexpected factors. The goal of the therapist in IFIO is to disengage from his/her own protective tendencies in order to respond to the couple spontaneously and remain unattached to ideas about how things should play out. 
      Couples entering IFIO therapy often hold the two goals of feeling safe within their relationship and reestablishing intimacy. The therapy is organized around three phases of treatment. The first phase involves meeting the couple to inquire about hopes and goals, assess their ability to accept differences in each other, and then offer a perspective on the possibilities of treatment. In this initial session, the therapist should determine any external constraints, pressures on one or both partners, and any history of a serious breach of trust. It is crucial in the beginning to develop an alternative to the pattern of operating from the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system or from the freeze response of the parasympathetic nervous system.
      Herbine-Blank and her co-authors title the second phase of IFIO therapy “The Flow and Eddies of the Middle” to reflect the non-linear process the therapy undergoes. This phase is meant to challenge a couple’s entrenched protective tendencies and repeat new learning that contradicts the couple’s old ideas about how to be safe within their relationship. There are a myriad of ways in which this can be accomplished. For example, identifying and tracking the couple’s negative cycles of interaction enables the therapist to recognize unmet needs that are the true reason for repetitive fights. Introducing new communication skills will allow the couple to detach from entrenched schemas and promote listening to one’s core Self. In the final phase of IFIO, Herbine-Blank discusses how to navigate conflict and the ways couples can repair a ruptured relationship.
      Herbine-Blank is specific in her instructions and provides clear examples to make the process of IFIO effective for both the therapist and the patients. She includes transcripts of couple’s sessions to provide therapists with real-life examples of what they will be facing in session and allows them to practice how to handle particular situations. She also includes “Therapist Tips” throughout the transcripts to provide concrete advice on how to approach certain topics and deal with emotional individuals.
      In addition to tips and transcripts, the author also includes specific questions for the clients to answer as well as useful exercises for the therapist to utilize. For example, in regard to sexuality, some of the questions she includes are “When and from whom did you learn about sex? How old were you when you became sexually interested? What polarizations do you have now about sex?” (65-66). This provides the therapist a starting point in how to approach certain subjects he/she may not be comfortable with. She also includes exercises for the therapist to utilize in session. In the same chapter, she recommends following the McCarthy model to help low sex couples. This model includes identifying what gets in the way of “becoming an intimate team” as well as discussing the risk of engaging in new behaviors (p. 69). Providing concrete questions and exercises introduces the therapist to the process of IFIO and allows them to figure out what techniques work best for them.
      Rather than just focusing on how to work with the patients, Herbine-Blank also acknowledges the role of the therapist in IFIO therapy. In order to navigate the complex situations that arise during IFIO sessions, therapists must look inward to develop solid internal connections and bring the same care and compassion to their struggles that they provide to their patients. She also recognizes the role of countertransference in the therapeutic process and indicates the importance of identifying when patients evoke responses within the therapist and how to handle these responses effectively.
      While Herbine-Blank makes an effort to describe novel terms throughout the chapters, she includes two appendices and a glossary at the end to provide further knowledge on certain phrases and examples. She dedicates the appendices to explaining the concepts of unblending and unburdening, two significant ideas that are regularly utilized in IFIO therapy. She describes unblending as the process of detaching from protective factors within oneself and allowing one’s true feelings and beliefs to come through without becoming overwhelming. Unburdening is the process of making room for true self-love and compassion by letting go of “painful, extreme beliefs that developed during difficult or traumatic experiences in the past” (179). The glossary includes additional terms specific to IFIO therapy that will be useful for therapists who are new to the process. Providing these resources helps to eliminate confusion over ambiguous exercises or phrases that a therapist new to IFIO may not initially comprehend.
      In Intimacy from the Inside Out, Herbine-Blank and her co-authors provide specific tools for therapists who are interested in engaging in a supplementary method of couple’s therapy. The book specifically outlines the IFIO therapeutic process as well as provides specific tips, models, and questions so the therapist can transition into the practice seamlessly. Herbine-Blank is thorough in her explanations and examples, making this book a beneficial tool for therapists starting out with the IFIO approach to therapy. 

Toni Herbine-Blank is a senior trainer for the Center of Self-Leadership and the sole developer of Intimacy from the Inside Out (IFIO). She runs trainings, retreats, and workshops on both methods nationally and internationally. She also has her own psychotherapy practice in Colorado.
Donna M. Kerpelman has been immersed in Internal Family Systems (IFS) for more than ten years as a student, teacher, and therapist. She has organized and facilitated several IFIO retreats for couples in addition to assisting with IFIO trainings for couple therapists. She also brings her knowledge of IFS and relationships to the legal world where she represents children with lead poisoning.
Martha Sweezy is a clinical supervisor at the Cambridge Health Alliance and a Lecturer in Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. She occasionally helps with IFS trainings as well as co-leads workshops on the topic of shame. She has her own therapy and consultation practice in Massachusetts.

Herbine-Blank, T., Kerpelman, D.M., & Sweezy, M. (2016). Intimacy from the Inside Out. New York, NY. Routledge.
ISBN: 978-0-415-70825-8.
Available in Hardcover, Paperback, and eBook. 206 p.
Foreword, Appendix, Glossary, References, Index.

Watts, A. (2017). Psychotherapy East & West. 
Reviewed by Rachel Baum, New York University.

In Psychotherapy East & West, Alan Watts attempts to bridge the gap between Western psychological thought and Eastern ways of life. Originally published in 1961, his goal was to provide an updated perspective on Western versus Eastern psychological ideas and provoke thought and experimentation in the reader. The 2017 reprinting of this classic instills new life into Watts’ argument that using psychotherapy without an understanding of Eastern ideologies will fall short of helping one to reach a feeling of true liberation. He posited that the groundbreaking insights of influential psychologists such as Freud and Jung synthesized with the Eastern spiritual philosophies of Buddhism, Taoism, Vedanta, and yoga could liberate people from the internal struggles within themselves. However, he did not simply present the parallels between Western psychotherapy and Eastern philosophy, but rather addressed the differing methods of thought to spark intellectual inquiry.
      Watts argues that traditional Eastern ways of life have more in common with psychotherapy than it does with Western religion and philosophy. He posited that psychoanalysis and depth psychology are out of touch with the emerging research in the human sciences. Rather than approaching psychotherapy from a strictly theoretical or scientific state of mind, he utilizes ideas of Eastern philosophy to provide a new perspective on how to approach the therapeutic process. While Western psychology has largely been concerned with matters of the mind and the psyche, Eastern philosophies have not categorized mind over matter or the body over the soul. The ancient cultures of Asia are not as concerned with the physicality of human existence but rather act as a critique of human culture and ways of life.
      Watts believes Western psychology is susceptible to becoming an “obedient tool” of society by transforming unconscious drives into social respectability in a form of individual brainwashing (p. 6). Psychotherapists who are truly concerned with helping the individual must engage in a form of social criticism. It is impossible to do this without taking into consideration the relationship that exists between other people and the social institutions in which these relationships are governed. Approaching psychotherapy from this perspective, the troubles from which the patient seeks relief cease to be merely psychological, and Eastern ways of liberation pick up from where Western psychology leaves off. Eastern philosophies allow the patient to separate social conventions from reality and his individual identity from the role society has forced upon him. This alternative psychological model expands the therapeutic process for patients who may not respond to the traditional psychotherapeutic methods.
      In order to illustrate clearly the relationship between Eastern ways of liberation and Western psychology, Watts connects specific psychological theories to Eastern philosophies. For example, he writes that a Chinese Buddhist text that states “He walks always by himself… he pays no attention to others,” is suggestive of Reisman’s “inner-directed” or Maslow’s “self-actualizing” personality (p. 5). He also references psychologists’ own musings of the relationship between Eastern and Western psychological thought. He quotes Jung in writing “In my technique I have been unconsciously led along the secret way which for centuries has been the preoccupation of the best minds of the East” (p. 15). By connecting specific ideas found in Eastern philosophies to Western psychology, the patient or psychotherapist achieves a stronger understanding of the relationship between the two modes of thought and how to apply these concepts to real-life situations.
      While the ideas Watts discusses in the book may have been groundbreaking at the time, in the past 50 years, there has been an enormous amount of new knowledge surrounding neurology, biology, sociology, religion, and spirituality. The emergence of these new ideas provides better insight and a more current perspective on the relationship between Western psychological thought and Eastern ways of liberation. While many of the ideas discussed are still applicable in modern society, the plethora of new knowledge that has been discovered in the past 50 years makes the book outdated. 
      Additionally, there is also concern regarding the remodeling of the core principles of Eastern philosophical teachings into psychological terms. This reframing can conceal the true purpose of the teachings and transform the path to enlightenment into an evaluation of the limitations of the human condition. The true meaning in Eastern ways of liberation is overcoming these limitations by breaking through into a different dimension of thinking. By conflating these ideas with Western psychology, the reader may not gather a strong understanding on either mode of thought and confuse their therapeutic process.
      With these critiques in mind, Psychotherapy East & West is a worthwhile read for those interested in the foundations of the Eastern and Western psychological conversation and the lived experience of this relationship. Watts introduces the roots to the approaches of psychological spirituality in an illuminating narrative that offers genuine insights of Eastern philosophical texts and Western psychology. This book is a great introduction to the connection between psychology and Eastern perspectives, and used in conjunction with more current ideas, can provide the reader new ways of approaching the therapeutic process.

Alan Watts was a British-born American philosopher, writer, speaker, and counterculture hero, best known as an interpreter of Asian philosophies for a Western audience. He wrote over 25 books and numerous articles weaving scientific knowledge into the teachings of Western and Eastern religion and philosophy.

Watts, A. (2017). Psychotherapy East & West. Novato, CA: New World Library.
ISBN: 978-60868-456-4.
Available in hardcover, paperback, and eBook: pp. 208
Includes Preface and Bibliographical References

 Rachel Baum (Reviewer) studies abnormal psychology with a minor in child and adolescent mental health studies at New York University. She has completed a psychiatric diagnostic evaluation for an adolescent at the NYU Child Study Center as well as developed a school-wide project to promote positive psychology on campus. In addition to reviewing books for the IJP, she writes reviews for Somatic Psychotherapy Today.

West, M. (2016). In the Darkest Places: Early relational trauma and borderline states of mind.
Reviewed by: Monica Spafford, New York University

In Into the Darkest Places: Early Relational Trauma and Borderline States of Mind, Marcus West, a Jungian, takes a controversial stance re-declaring early relational trauma as the root of psychological distress and analytic thinking. West ultimately works to develop an integrative approach to trauma analysis and therapy incorporating ideas from theorists like Freud and Jung who prioritize internal reactions to trauma and Ferenczi and Bowlby who emphasize real-world experiences. He suggests that our understanding of and analytic approaches to trauma cannot be divorced from the experience itself or the individual and internal responses; rather, we need to understand trauma via both pathways, internal and external. Subsequently, using his integrative approach West offers a nuanced understanding of borderline states of mind.
      He suggests that theorists like Freud, Jung, Klein, among others have not taken into account the ways in which trauma is “embodied and embedded in the individual’s character structure” (p. xviii). Put differently, they focus on an individual’s internal response to trauma and not the real-world trauma. In doing so, West believes that these theorists’ ultimate approach to explaining, understanding, and analyzing is “largely divorced from” the trauma itself (xviii). For example, Freud focused primarily on the unconscious, fantasy world not on actual experiences of trauma. For Freud, what’s important is trauma due to internal conflict not external forces; whether the trauma actually occurred in real life is a moot point, all individuals experience the Oedipus complex. Klein and Jung take a similar approach.
      West advocates in favor of theorists like Ferenczi, Bowlby, and Rosenfeld who focus on how real-world trauma becomes embedded in an individual’s identity. However, West acknowledges the limitations of these theorists and ultimately proposes an integrative approach. He focuses on how an integrative approach can shed a new light on borderline states of mind. West suggests that individuals with a borderline psychology have incorporated the trauma into their identity, establishing beliefs such as “‘people do not like me’” or “‘there is nothing to like, I am not a person’” which disrupts ego-functioning and conflicts with their innate attachment needs (p. 4). Simply put, this internalization of trauma not only disrupts an individual’s ability to face reality but also obscures their sense of reality. West proposes that trauma therapy should work through the most disruptive aspects of trauma and is most successful when the analyst and the individual face the trauma directly and work through the trauma complex.
      By doing so, the individual will gain an understanding of the traumatic experience and their internal reactions to the experience. This will lead to the individual eventually accepting the traumatic experience, often after re-experiencing and transference ultimately allowing the individual to integrate the trauma into their identity. In turn, the individual will maintain the trauma as a part of their identity but not constantly be at war with it or let it define their entire identity.
      West is not proposing that we look at and treat each individual in the same way, forcing them all into one discernable category or diagnosis. Rather, he suggests that by looking at each individual’s distinct early relational traumatic experience(s) analysts are acknowledging the individual behind the trauma and are simply seeking to utilize methods which allow the individual to understand, accept, and integrate the trauma into their identity. Hopefully, via an integrative approach individuals who have experienced early relational trauma can move on in a healthy way and lead fulfilling lives.
      West questions well-known theories and looks at trauma from an integrative perspective. He claims that early relational trauma is the root of psychological distress and seeks to understand trauma by piecing together a cornucopia of different theories and ideas. He seeks to look at analytic theory, trauma theory, and relational theory side-by-side, suggesting that the limitations of one can be explained by the others. West explains “that psychoanalysis, Jungian analysis, and trauma therapy need each other;” in other words, they go hand-in-hand when exploring an individual’s state of mind (p. xx). Ultimately, West declares to be successful the analyst must be willing and “prepared to accompany the patient ‘into the darkest places’” (p. xviii).

Marcus West is a training analyst of the Society of Analytical Psychology working in private practice in Sussex, England. He is an editor of the Journal of Analytical Psychology and is chair of Psychotherapy Sussex. He is a Jungian who specializes in a variety of topics including but not limited to identity, narcissism, borderline phenomena, trauma, envy, and dreams. In 2004, he was joint winner of the Michael Fordham Prize, which is presented to the published paper that demonstrates the most creative and original approach to clinical analytic thinking. He is also the author of two other books: 'Feeling, Being, and the Sense of Self -A New Perspective on Identity, Affect and Narcissistic Disorders', published in 2007 and 'Understanding Dreams in Clinical Practice' published in 2011.

West, M. (2016). In the Darkest Places: Early relational trauma and borderline states of mind. London: Karnac Books.
ISBN 9781782201229.
Available in paperback and eBook: 334 pages.
Includes an introduction, references, and index.

Maletic, V. & Raison, C.L. (2017). The New Mind-body Science of Depression.
Reviewed by Monica Spafford, New York University  

In an attempt to better understand mental illness, psychiatrists have in the past looked at mental illness, via a medical model. That is, they viewed mental illness as analogous to physical illness, diagnosable based on strict, definitive criteria and treated accordingly. The psychiatry “bible,” better known as the DSM V dictates the strict, definitive criteria for diagnosing and treating mental illnesses; however, mental illness is complex and rarely fits within these criterial boundaries. Mental health clinicians have been slow to veer from the strict diagnostic schema in the DSM. As a result, our understanding of mental illness, specifically depression is rather insufficient. In The New Mind-Body Science of Depression, Vladimir Maletic and Charles Raison claim that we oversimplify major depression by looking at it as a discrete illness. As a result, we overlook the significance of research that doesn’t support that view. They suggest that the answers to many of our questions about major depression can be found by analyzing and integrating information we already have, but in the past ignored. They seek to map out how we came to view major depression as a discrete illness and provide evidence against that view. By doing so, they demonstrate that by sticking to misconceptions about mental illness, we are oblivious to important information that can provide some of the answers we’ve been searching for.
      Maletic and Raison explain that in the early 1900s psychiatrists noticed a link between mental illness and physical illness: two patients can both have major depression but only have one symptom in common and have completely different causal factors just like two patients for example who both have tuberculosis but only have one symptom in common and completely different causal factors. Therefore, illuminated by these commonalities psychiatrists sought to understand mental illness as equivalent to physical illness instead of adopting the more ambiguous, multifaceted explanations preferred by psychoanalysts. Maletic and Raison argue in favor of a psychoanalytic understanding of major depression, which presents major depression as a complex response to a failure to adapt to the environment.
      They supplement their argument with evidence that suggests major depression is not a discrete illness. For example, it violates Robins and Guze criteria for disease validity in that there is no biological diagnostic test for major depression, which Maletic and Raison suggest “is widely used as evidence that we don’t yet understand what causes the disorder” (p. 16). In fact, we do know a lot about what causes the disorder and the lack of a biological marker for major depression merely proves that major depression is not a “discrete, unitary disease entity” (p. 16). Maletic and Raison provide the more traditional explanation, which maintains that major depression is caused by an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors; however, they extend this explanation by arguing that the causal factors include more complex systems like the immune system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and changes in brain structure and function.
      At the end of the book, the authors apply the knowledge they espouse to two different case studies, demonstrating how an interdisciplinary approach can not only help us understand and explain a patient’s symptoms but also lead us down the proper treatment path. They show that mental illness exists on a continuum and is often comorbid; therefore, looking at a patient’s condition via one lens and trying to fit a patient into a discrete category almost guarantees something will be overlooked. By analyzing and integrating neuroscientific, immunological, sociological, anthropological, biological, psychoanalytic and psychiatric knowledge we can strengthen our understanding of major depression and better predict the most useful treatment for an individual patient: whether pharmacological therapy will work better than psychotherapy or whether norepinephrine or dopamine-modulating medications will work better than SSRI’s.
      It is important to note that Maletic and Raison do not claim to have all the answers; however, they suggest that through an interdisciplinary approach we can move closer to finding the correct treatment plan for each individual patient and shrink our margin of error. In The New Mind-Body Science of Depression, they demonstrate how integrating research from various disciplines proves we can’t take a strictly dichotomous approach to major depression and more importantly, displays the breadth of scientific knowledge we have acquired. Through this knowledge, we can explain some of the unexplainable aspects of major depression and set a path for future scientific innovation. This book is a must-read for even the most skeptical of mental health professionals because it will revolutionize their understanding of major depression and mental illness altogether and provide them with ample resources to better assist their patients.

Vladimir Maletic is a Clinical Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine in Greenville. He is also a consulting associate in the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, at Duke University. In 2013, he was the program chair for the US Psychiatric and Mental Health Congress. Additionally, de has published two books and several articles.
Charles Raison is a professor at the School of Human Ecology and the Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine and Public Health at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is the Director of Clinical and Translational Research for Usona Institute and is Interim Director of Research in Spiritual Health for Emory University Healthcare. He is internationally recognized for his research on major depression and other stress-related conditions. Additionally, he received the Pearl Memorial Award from the Human Biology Association.

Maletic, V. & Raison, Charles L. (2017). The New Mind-body Science of Depression. New York: W.W. Norton & Co
ISBN: 9780393706666.
Available in Hardcover and eBook: 620 pages.
Includes bibliographical references and index.

Monica Spafford (Reviewer) studies Applied Psychology at New York University and is set to graduate in May of 2018. She is a Research Assistant for the INSIGHTS into Children’s Temperament research study at NYU’s Institute of Human Development and Social Change testing the efficacy of the INSIGHTS program, an evidence-based intervention that works to support children’s social-emotional development and academic learning. In addition to writing reviews for the IJP, she writes reviews for Somatic Psychotherapy Today.

Craske, M. (2017). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.
Reviewed by: Molly Wilder, New York University

Michelle Craske gives a straight forward look into the past, present and future of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Within the first few pages, she begins by giving a succinct and general overview of the theory behind CBT and its importance in successfully treating patients. CBT helps you become aware of inaccurate or negative thinking so you can view challenging situations more clearly and respond to them in a more effective way. This therapy can be a very helpful tool in treating mental health disorders, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or an eating disorder. But not everyone who benefits from CBT has a mental health condition. It can be an effective tool to help anyone learn how to better manage stressful life situations. Craske does not miss a chance to define or explain a concept. This makes it much easier to follow without a dictionary or DSM 5 in hand. Although some concepts may take a bit longer to wrap your head around, the use of examples makes the content a bit easier to swallow. In only about 200 pages the reader is placed in the role of the therapist, soon able to recognize these negative patterns and behaviors. This book is geared towards a narrow audience, ranging from those with a basic understanding of theory in the field of psychology to seasoned practitioners interested in understanding this approach.
       It is important to keep in mind that although a number of variations on the original theory have developed over the decades, all types of cognitive—behavioral therapy are unified by their foundation, reliance on the theory and science of behavior and cognition, and problem-focused goals. Craske defines theory as “the compass that allows psychotherapists to navigate the vast territory of clinical practice (viii).” She explains the hallmark features of CBT as “a short-term, problem-focused cognitive behavioral intervention using strategies (3)” that are derived from these theories over time. In the next chapter Craske gives a 12 page condensed version of the origins and future direction of CBT. She looks at the multiple ways in which clinicians may draw from their inclinations when creating a treatment plan. She delves into the theories of Beck and Ellis’s theory of Irrational Beliefs among others. She explores each of these theories, their use, history and relation to CBT. For visual learners, the book also provides figures to map out a few of these more complicated models.
      In the next few chapters, Craske goes into the therapy process and the application of these models. She describes how “without a guiding theory we might treat the symptom without understanding the role of the individual' (p. viii). She emphasizes the importance of the individual within society and the ways in which well-meaning practices may actually harm or inhibit progress. In CBT, the therapist and the client work together to identify unhelpful patterns of thinking and behavior. Carefully constructed exercises are used to help clients evaluate and change their thoughts and behaviors. Some aspects of treatment focus more on thoughts and some aspects focus more on behaviors. If a client has difficulty identifying and challenging negative thoughts, the therapist may focus on addressing behaviors such as avoidance, withdrawal or poor social skills. On the other hand, if such behaviors are not as noticeable, the therapist may focus on challenging unrealistic thinking. CBT uses a number of different techniques such as goal setting and identifying thoughts and behaviors as they occur. Craske emphasizes that CBT should not be applied as a ‘cookie-cutter’ approach. The therapist must carefully assess the client’s motivations and how to best approach them individually. 
      In combination with the DVD paired with this edition of the book, individuals can watch the theory be applied to practice with real live sessions. Sometimes descriptions are not enough to fully comprehend these concepts and techniques. These short videos can be incredibly useful for those who want a better understanding of these theories when applied to real life.
      From its theoretical origins to its current potential, Craske defines the key concepts and techniques of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and creates a solid outline for those interested in using this particular therapeutic treatment. She adds a summary at the end for those readers who may not feel ready to dive so deep into the theories behind it all, although the theories do help to better understand the practice. This book is the perfect tool for graduate students studying theories of therapy and counseling as well as practitioners interested in CBT.

Michelle Craske is currently a professor in the Department of Psychology and Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, UCLA, and director of the UCLA Anxiety Disorders Behavioral Research program. She received her PhD from the University of British Columbia in 1985. She has published extensively in the area of fear and anxiety disorders. She has written academic books on the topics of the etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders, gender differences in anxiety, and translation from the basic science of fear learning to the understanding and treating of phobias, in addition to several self-help books and therapist guides.

Craske, M. (2017). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 
ISBN: 9781433827488
Paperback: p. 200.

Molly Wilder (Reviewer) is currently a Junior at New York University Steinhardt studying Applied Psychology with a focus on Occupational Therapy.


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