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Resource List 3: Reviewed Psychotherapy Books

 

A COLLECTION OF RECENT ENGLISH-LANGUAGE PSYCHOTHERAPY BOOK REVIEWS

Complied under the direction of Jacqueline A. Carleton Ph.D. for the IJP (April 2014).
(All the entries marked with a ** are to do with working with diets, nutrition and eating disorders) 

Adams, M. (2014). The myth of the untroubled therapist: private life, professional practice.

**Albers, S. (2012). Eating Mindfully: How to End Mindless Eating and Enjoy a Balanced Relationship with Food.

Baranowsky, A.B. & Lauer, T. (2012). What is PTSD? 3 Steps to Healing Trauma.

**Bauman, E. & Waldmna, H. (2012). The whole food guide for breast cancer survivors: a nutritional approach to preventing recurrence.

**Beck, M. (2011). Stop Eating Your Heart Out.

Breger, L. (2012). Psychotherapy: Lives intersecting.

Donaldson-Pressman, S. & Pressman, R.M. (1997). The Narcissistic Family: Diagnosis and Treatment.

**Fulvio, L. (2013). Reclaiming Yourself from Binge Eating: A Step-by-Step Guide to Healing.

**Golden, J. (2011). 50 Strategies to Sustain Recovery From Bulimia.

Goodheart, C.D. (2014). A Primer for ICD-10-CM Users: Psychological and Behavioral Conditions.

Koenig, K. (2008). What Every Therapist Needs to Know About Treating Eating and Weight Issues.

Kuchuck, S. (Ed.). (2014). Clinical implications of the psychoanalyst’s life experience: when the personal becomes professional.

**Maine, M., Davis, W.N. & Shure, J. (Eds.). (2009). Effective clinical practice in the treatment of eating disorders: the heart of the matter.

**Maisel, R., Epston, D., & Borden, A. (2004). Biting the Hand that Starves You. 

**McCabe, R., McFarlene, T., Olmsted, M. (2003) The Overcoming Bulimia Workbook: Your Comprehensive, Step-by-Step Guide to Recovery.

Picucci, M. (2012). Focalizing Source Energy: Going Within to Move Beyond.

Rand, M. (2013). Body Mindfulness Workshop with Dr. Marjorie Rand [DVD].

**Ross, C. (2009). The Binge Eating and Compulsive Overeating Workbook: An Integrated Approach to Overcoming Disordered Eating.

**Sandoz, E., Wilson, K. & Dufrene, T. (2011). The Mindfulness and Acceptance Workbook for Bulimia: A Guide to Breaking Free from Bulimia Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

**Scott, T. (2011). The Anti-Anxiety Food Solution: How the foods you eat can help you calm your anxious mind, improve your mood & end cravings.

Slingerland, E. (2014). Trying Not to Try: The Ancient Chinese Art and Modern Science of Spontaneity.

Van den Bos, G. (2013). APA Dictionary of Clinical Psychology



Adams, M. (2014). The myth of the untroubled therapist: private life, professional practice.
              Reviewed by Phillipe Kleefield, New York University

[This book] is a frank, warm and refreshing read for any clinician working in the field of mental health. Through the qualitative study of 40 clinicians throughout the United Kingdom and Canada, Marie Adams seeks to engage in “consciousness raising”, creating a space in which clinicians can come to feel more at ease in knowing that many professionals in the field face personal issues that can come to affect their work. Analyzing the data from her various interviews, Adams has found that most of the clinicians she interviewed had personal motivations for entering the field, arguing that these motivations exist as both a boon and a disadvantage, allowing for these therapists to at times feel a greater sense of empathy toward patients, while at other times fostering sharp disavowals or negative counter-transferences. Adams also explores a list of different issues that arose in her sample of clinicians since they’ve become licensed, such as depression, anxiety, death in the family, burn-out, shame and narcissistic ideations of wanting to feel successful with a patient. Marie Adams seeks to create a space for clinicians in which they can feel safe to acknowledge their own personal issues that may affect their work, urging each and every clinician to allow themselves to feel vulnerable, counter their shame, feel less impervious to the demand to feel perfect and unscathed, and to reach out to other professionals in their communities.
              Her first and last chapters are what I find to be the most central in understanding a broad overview of the various themes that she explores in the lives of her sample. Although one of her shortest chapters, the first chapter acknowledges the importance of personal motivations in the lives of the therapists she studied, arguing that these therapists should feel compelled to be aware, present with and critical of these personal motivations as they engage with their patients. Stressing the need to not feel above patients, she instead wants clinicians to deconstruct and reflect on their own behaviors, reactions and experiences in the therapeutic process. Serving as a sort of discussion and culmination of her study, the last chapter explores each prior issue in further depth and advocates not only for the importance of supervision for clinicians, but that they develop an individualized strategy to mitigate issues that could come up in therapy with patients.
              Verging on the exploratory, Marie Adams reigns in the examination of issues to address the more practical in Chapters 7, Keeping Our House In Order and in Chapter 9, A Problem Shared, detailing ways of taking care of oneself while working in the field of mental health. In Chapter 7, the difficulties of maintaining a private practice are enumerated to ultimately re-stress the importance of allowing oneself to feel vulnerable and the acceptance that taking time off is at times beneficial and crucial. In Chapters 9 delineates how to maintain a good balance of working while taking care of one’s own health, paying particular attention to warning signs and stressing supervision as a vital resource for any clinician.
              I found particularly interesting her analysis of how the different types of therapy that clinicians practiced were associated with either more or less personal motivation to enter the field, and subsequently, more or fewer feelings of shame when encountering personal difficulties. It is not surprising that psychodynamic clinicians had greater awareness of personal motivations for entering the field of therapy, while they also had a greater acceptance than those clinicians oriented to other therapies to receive help when facing personal strife. The Cognitive Behavioral Therapists seemed to possess more of a sense that they needed to manage their issues using their own techniques.
              Marie Adams’ book exists as a good source exploring the needs and issues that clinicians face in working with patients through a therapeutic process. It is at times ironic to read how unwilling clinicians can be to take care of their own health and admit their own faults when they are tasked with the arduously rigorous responsibility of making other people better. Adams does seem to make the assumption that no therapist has successfully found a strategy to maintain a strict boundary between their personal and professional life, paying very little attention to those therapists in her sample that don’t feel particularly influenced by the personal in their work with patients, dismissing these clinicians as not having a full understanding of their motivations and behaviors. I think that a source of further inquiry might involve clinicians that have found a means of separating themselves from their therapy work. However, Marie Adams might conclude that this really isn’t possible. Overall, Marie Adams has written a well-reasoned and compelling book arguing that therapists should feel more empowered to consider their own needs in addition to those of their patients.

Adams, M. (2014). The myth of the untroubled therapist: private lives, professional practice. New York; Routledge.
ISBN: 978-0-415-53259-4.
Paperback.
Key Words: Psychotherapists, Mental Health, Case Studies, Psychotherapy, Practice, Psychological Aspects, Depression, Mental.

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**Albers, S. (2012). Eating Mindfully: How to End Mindless Eating and Enjoy a Balanced Relationship with Food.
              Reviewed by: Mona Zohny, Hunter College

Buddhism, mindfulness is one of the factors of enlightenment. Recently, positive psychologists have begun to explore this concept in the context of physical and mental health. Albers’s second edition of Eating Mindfullyis a follow up to the first edition, an introduction to mindful eating. The second edition is structured the same way but contains much of the same information and more. The purpose of this book is not specifically designed to help only those with eating disorders. Instead, it aims to help anybody with mindless eating habits. This book contains dozens of tips to help increase mindful thinking and behaviors.
              Mindfulness is described as being present and aware from moment to moment. Eating mindfully involves being aware of the taste and texture of food, the physical process of eating, the physical sensations of hunger and fullness, and the emotions involved. The book starts off by answering common questions about mindful eating. Albers also provides a summary of the five types of mindless eaters: the occasional mindless eater (new to the second edition), the chronic mindless dieter, the mindless overeater, and the mindless chaotic eater. She provides a list of attributes for each category that allows readers to figure out what type of mindless eater they are. Albers believes that everyone is guilty of mindless eating at some point and she emphasizes that progress is more significant than perfection. It is more important to control the present moment than it is to focus on the past or future. In a time when many people have busy, fast-paced lives, often eating meals while they work, this book reminds us of the importance of slowing down and using our senses to actually enjoy meals.
            The rest of the book is divided into five parts. The first part is about the mindfulness of the mind. This involves being present and aware of all five senses when one eats. Albers points out that doing so will allow one to feel more pleasure while eating and be able to stay in control. She also discusses the idea of letting go of food restrictions and categorizing foods as being good or bad.
              The second part is about the mindfulness of the body. This means paying attention to the signs of hunger in order to distinguish between emotional and physical hunger. It also involves paying attention to one’s physical motions while eating. The author explores self-acceptance of one’s past, present and future bodies. Albers recommends meditation and breathing exercises to train oneself to remain in the moment. She also explores the idea of fine tuning one’s taste buds.
              The third part discusses the mindfulness of the feelings. This involves figuring out the emotional triggers that cause mindless eating as well as dealing with negative feelings regarding one’s weight. It also encourages readers to think about how relationships can affect their eating habits and even provides tips on how to eat mindfully around others, especially during the holidays.
              The fourth part is about the mindfulness of the thoughts. Albers discusses the dangers of “mindless thinking” which includes overgeneralizing an outcome, overstating things or ignoring significant information (202). She recommends planning meals in order to avoid emotional eating. Albers also explores the idea of the “inner food critic” and how to silence the voice that shouts judgmental remarks at you about your food choices (219).
              The fifth part is new to this edition and serves as a review. It consists of a detailed checklist with all of the tips for mindful eating that Albers covers throughout the book. The author also provides several different scenarios emotional eaters can find themselves in and ways to handle the situation mindfully.
              Every chapter of this book provides readers with exercises called skill builders that keep them engaged. Some of these skill builders require the reader to keep a food diary. Others simply require a mental task. Albers recommends reading the whole book before starting these exercises. She provides many different types of skill builders, so there is something for everybody.
              Eating Mindfully: How to End Mindless Eating and Enjoy a Balanced Relationship with Food is a comprehensive and engaging guide to eating mindfully. It can be used by almost anybody who wants to learn how to be more present and aware in their eating habits and daily lives in general. This book focuses on the readers and their experiences, while Albers also provides relatable examples from her own clients. The skill builders provided allow the reader to apply the concepts discussed to their lives.

Albers, S. (2012). Eating Mindfully: How to End Mindless Eating and Enjoy a Balanced Relationship with Food. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.
ISBN: 978-1-60882-330-7
Paperback, 290 pp, Suggested further readings and bibliographical references included.
Keywords: Eating disorders, food habits, mindful eating, mindfulness, nutrition, overeating, self-help.

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Baranowsky, A.B. & Lauer, T. (2012). What is PTSD? 3 Steps to Healing Trauma.
              Reviewed by: Rachel Vitale, New York University

Dr. Anna Baranowsky and Teresa Lauer, LMHC have come together to write a self-help manual that both educates one on what exactly Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is, and how to go about treating oneself. The most important feature of this book is the explanation of what PTSD is, featured in the introduction. So, what exactly is PTSD? In short, PTSD is an anxiety disorder that can occur following a traumatic event. It is a disorder often heard in reference to the men and women who have served their countries in the armed forces. Young children may suffer from it as well—the disorder is limitless in terms of those that it affects. PTSD is often publicized on the news and other forms of media. The detailed description of this disorder that the book provides is more informative than any information a news broadcast can bring forth.
              We are accustomed to hearing negative stories regarding PTSD; after all, it is an unfortunate disorder to suffer from. Although the negativity attached to the disorder is often inevitable, this book is quite uplifting. A sense of negativity is most likely the last feeling one would have while reading this book. The authors use soft, nurturing language throughout the book to make their readers feel calm, almost at ease. It’s almost as if to say, “Don’t worry, we know. Everything will be okay.
              Following what is PTSD, the main idea presented in this book is that there are three essential steps to healing the trauma inflicted on oneself by Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The first step is to find comfort. The authors explain that by finding a stable support system, it will be that much easier for an individual to gain self-confidence, and ultimately overcome trauma. Seems simple enough, yes? Often this is the hardest step for people who suffer from PTSD, as the authors explain in further detail. This step requires courage and confidence, two things that PTSD has the potential of completely taking away from a person. Once this step is accomplished, next is Step Two.
              The second step is to remember the trauma. This sounds a bit, well, tortuous. Why would someone who has endured such great trauma ever wish to relive that event again? While at first glance once may agree that this step would not be effective, it is in fact necessary in order to recover from PTSD. This step appears to be the most difficult of the three, but through Baranowsky and Lauer’s kind, encouraging words, readers will feel as if they are being taken by the hand carefully and gently through an unforgettable journey. Being able to remember one’s trauma - without being retraumatized - means that one is ready and able to face it. It is only then that an individual can move on to the third and final step of overcoming trauma.
              The third step is, as the authors phrase it, “begin to live again!” This intense enthusiasm is so very necessary in order to express this last step. This is meant to be the fun part of the process. The authors’ three-step guide strategically flows from one step to the next so very eloquently. Once an individual is able to find a team of support in which comfort is most felt in step one, the trauma can be faced head on, fearlessly in step two, and in turn, the person can begin to finally live life again to the fullest, which is apparent in step three. Never have I read a book that made battling a disorder feel so uplifting.

Baranowsky, A.B. & Lauer, T. (2012). What is PTSD? 3 Steps to Healing Trauma.  Publisher: Author via CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
ISBN: 978-1478286738.
Paperback 226 pages: Does not include index.
Key words: dissociation, helplessness, mind-body connection, stress, support, trauma 
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**Bauman, E. & Waldmna, H. (2012). The whole food guide for breast cancer survivors: a nutritional approach to preventing recurrence.
              Reviewed by Phillipe Kleefield, New York University

Edward Bauman and Helayne Waldman have written a book mainly addressed for women currently living with breast cancer, however, the book is also written for women who may want to protect themselves from developing the disease. In this book, The Whole Food Guide For Breast Cancer Survivors, the premises supporting the lifestyle recommendations involve a belief that nutritional and spiritual factors are key components of overall wellness, especially in preventing and surviving breast cancer. Based on these premises a comprehensive overview of diet, avoidable exposures, and other factors are explored, including thorough explanations of and sample recipes to truly make this change stick.
              The first and second chapters set up the books theoretical foundation as to why diet and spiritual health are so important. The first chapters reviews traditional risk factors that have been established to play a role in the development of breast cancer, including various genetic factors, various hormonal factors, and confirmed environmental factors. The second chapter, the crux of the foundation that supports her argument, explores emerging risk factors in the development of breast cancer, including “ The Standard American Diet”—a Western dietary pattern which consists of a high intake of red meat, sugar, trans fats, high-fructose corn syrup, artificial sweeteners, and refined grains – alcohol consumption in western countries, immune system deficiencies, a chronic inflammatory state in the body, iodine issues and other similar risk factors. These two chapters are important for understanding the science behind why a particular emphasis is being placed on diet.
              The rest of the book is devoted to addressing specifics within the diet plan recommendation and other ways in which emerging risk factors might be avoided. Chapter three outlines the foundational diet plan, offering general guidelines including growing your own salad green and herbs, drinking plenty of filtered water, reading labels and avoiding foods with artificial ingredients, eating more vegetables, consuming breakfast before 10 AM which should include a serving of goof quality protein, and other general recommendations. In addition, each nutrient that is recommended is explored in terms of what it is, what it does for the body, and why it is being recommended in a particular serving. In chapter four, the purpose is to understand how to limit your exposures to toxins, and the chapter explores the role of personal care products in the exposure of toxins, the toxins in water, general sources of pesticides and tips on minimizing these exposures. The fifth chapter is aimed at understanding the various nutritional deficiencies that exist, how to go about figuring out if you are suffering from any of them, and how to go about creating a balance. These chapters are useful in getting a specific idea of what diet to eat to minimize your breast cancer risk factors.
              The next three chapters address glucose and insulin control as it relates to weight, how to nourish and maintain your immune system, and how to reduce chronic inflammation. In the sixth chapter, higher glucose and insulin levels are seen as negative, reasons are explored as to the relationship between insulin and glucose levels with cancer development, and lastly, different strategies are offered to minimize these levels. The seventh chapter addresses the immune system, the importance of maintaining a strong immune system, how a strong immune system can be maintained, and an overview of the specific nutrients that are related to a good immune function. The eight chapters addresses chronic inflammation and is aimed at minimizing chronic inflammation by assessing your current inflammation levels and providing a thorough overview of how inflammation can be minimized in the body. These chapters are important supplements to the foundational diet and are thought of as important in understanding the development of breast cancer.
              The last two chapters address issues of digestion, elimination and detoxification of toxins, role of hormones in the body. Chapter nine is an examination of digestion including its importance in health and how it can be optimized, and an exploration of the liver and its important role in health functioning. Chapter ten goes through a list of different hormones that may play a role in cancer and examines how these hormones can be balanced to maintain an optimal interplay of these hormones in your body. These two chapters are important in that they serve as a further supplement to the foundational diet outlined.
              Edward Bauman and Helayne Waldman have written a great book that explores emerging risk factors related to the development of breast cancer and how these factors might be eliminated. Through a great blend of practical schedules, scientific literature supporting the various recommendations, and straightforward language, The Whole Food Guide for Breast Cancer Survivors is a great read for anyone who is interesting in making serious lifestyle.

Bauman, E. & Waldmna, H. (2012). The whole food guide for breast cancer survivors: a nutritional approach to preventing recurrence. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.
ISBN: 978-1-57224-958-5
Paperback: 249 pages
Keywords: Breast cancer, nutritional aspects, prevention, diet therapy, self-care, health

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**Beck, M. (2011). Stop Eating Your Heart Out
              Reviewed by: Mona Zohny, Hunter College

In Stop Eating Your Heart Out, Meryl Hershey Beck offers readers a 21-day program that will help “release [them] from [their] emotional dependence on food” (xix). This self-help book is a valuable resource for both sufferers of eating disorders, such as binge eating disorder (BED) and compulsive overeating (COD), or people that want to change their unhealthy relationship with food. Beck is a self-proclaimed “(recovered) food junkie” (xvi). She says that “food was the glue that kept [her] together” (xvi). She has also been treating patients with BED and CO for over 20 years. Her experiences enabled her to create a practical plan encompassing all of the beneficial techniques she has discovered throughout the years. This book contains an array of tools for dealing with emotional eating which includes journaling, meditation, creative visualization, energy techniques, and conscious living.
              In the first chapter, Beck tells the story of her struggles with food. For years she was a closet eater and yo-yo dieter. She recalls the inception of her eating habits during her childhood and provides insight as to why she began over eating to fill the emptiness inside her.  This awareness was something she had developed through her recovery. Chapter’s Two through Eight each cover three days of the plan so that the book progresses chronologically. Chapter Two is about becoming more self-honest. Readers can take a mini-assessment to see if they have any emotional eating problems. The assignments for the first three days involve writing their eating history, which involves reflecting on their pasts to see when and how their emotional eating began, keeping a food mood diary (for all 21 days of the program) which includes writing down every food they eat along with their mood at the time and the relevant circumstances, and keeping a journal since the focus of this book is the emotional aspects of overeating.
              The rest of the chapters discuss finding support, spirituality, energy techniques, going within (oneself), personal housecleaning, conscious living and a review, respectively. Beck approaches the issue of emotional eating from every angle. Throughout the book, she touches upon the influence Alcoholic Anonymous groups have had on support groups for eating problems, since emotional eating can be considered a food addiction.These 12-step programs have influenced the program that Beck has developed in this book. She uses some of the same activities including a simplified version of a moral inventory assignment used in AA groups, which involves taking a look at “character traits that have outlived their usefulness” in order to free oneself from them (141).
              Another interesting concept that Beck learned about during a 12-step program is the idea of one’s Inner Child. The Inner Child is a “metaphor for the precious child we all were who often had unexpressed feelings and unmet needs” (115). The assignments surrounding this concept involve developing and using a Nurturing Parent/Healthy Adult part of oneself to create a dialogue with the Inner Child through which healing can occur.
              Beck explores the idea of energy techniques such as Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) and Rapidly Integrated Transformation Technique (RITT) which she developed with Robert Trainor Masci. These techniques involve tapping on certain pressure points and repeating a phrase. EFT usually involves one feeling while RITT encompasses many feelings at once. The goal is to neutralize negative emotions by affecting the flow of energy in the body. These techniques are used for patients with anxiety, depression and eating disorders. The assignment provided in this book is designed to help emotional eaters curb their cravings. However, Beck encourages the use of these techniques whenever any negative emotions begin to surface and integrates them into other parts of the recovery process, like with the Inner Child work, since one’s Inner Child can bring up painful memories from the past.
              Beck’s Stop Eating Your Heart Out is an easy to read book that serves as a practical tool for emotional eaters. This book does not focus on food. Instead, it dives into the feelings and thoughts associated with eating which influence negative behaviors like overeating. While the author used the concept that it takes 21 days to break a habit, she encourages readers to spend up to a week on a single assignment, and to revisit assignments if necessary. The personal anecdotes of Beck’s experiences with emotional eating instil hope in the reader and make him or her feel like s/he is not alone in his or her suffering.

Beck, M. (2011). Stop Eating Your Heart Out. San Francisco, CA: Red Wheel/Weiser.
ISBN: 978-1-57324-545-6
Paperback: 256 pp. Suggested further readings and index included.
Keywords: binge eating disorder, compulsive overeating, eating disorders, food habits, nutrition, overeating, self-help

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Breger, L. (2012). Psychotherapy: lives intersecting.
           Reviewed by Phillipe Kleefield, New York University

Psychotherapy and psychoanalysis are words that can conjure mixed feelings about the usefulness of their processes, whether they are worth the expensive undertaking, and other similar introspective thoughts, all of which lead to the central question: are psychotherapy and psychoanalysis really for me? The above picture that I have chosen to include with this review serves as a figuratively visual representation of the guiding question-- whether psychoanalysis is a good choice-- that I believe has prompted and informed Louis Breger to write his book, Psychotherapy: Lives Intersecting, as an exploration through the lens of those patients that he has treated in the past, about what is unique in his psychotherapeutic analysis, what “worked” for his patients, and for whom his therapy was not an ideal fit. Louis Breger orients his book toward patients that might be considering psychotherapy, in addition to other psychotherapeutic clinicians, as a means of juxtaposing his less orthodox, more relational form of psychotherapy in contrast to more traditional psychoanalysis as advocated by theorists such as Sigmund Freud. Through the long-term follow up of his patients, Louis Breger offers an insightful and honest analysis of what his more successful patients found important about his therapeutic style (he also addresses the responses of those that didn’t find him particularly useful), allowing for readers to carve their own path in coming to a conclusion about whether psychotherapy and psychoanalysis might be a useful journey.
            In the first four chapters, Louis Breger makes the case for himself as a uniquely oriented psychotherapist, one who has carved his own intellectual formative path against “dogma”, and for Psychotherapy: Lives Intersecting as a somewhat radical departure from a practice that tends to privilege the therapist as speaking on behalf of their clients. In the second chapter the reader is introduced to Louis Breger’s style of therapy, in which he demonstrates, through recounting his own recollection of certain patients while weaving in their own recollections, how he is an adaptable psychotherapist in his psychoanalysis, sensing whether a particular patient may need him to be more orthodox in style, or whether being more relational and interactive is what might be needed. In the third chapter, Louis Breger is interested in deconstructing his choice to engage in post-therapeutic communication with his patients as a valid, learnable process in which both he and his patient benefitted from the exchange, countering the traditional rule that “termination” should signal an end to the therapeutic relationship. Lastly, in the fourth chapter, Louis Breger uses the stories of his patients to contrast his own style vis a vis the style of more traditionally orthodox psychotherapists, as such highlighting the usefulness of being relational, as opposed to distant, silent and having a strict sense that there is a distinction between patient and therapist. These chapters are a catalyst for his later discussion of what he comes to conclude is more beneficial about his less orthodox from of psychotherapy.
            Chapters 5-8 delve into Breger’s personal life history, exploring his familial life, also exploring his narrative of becoming a psychologist, specifically, a psychoanalyst, informing the reader about what seemed to have motivated his particular style of psychotherapy. Breger recounts a childhood and adolescence coping with an intelligent yet depressed mother, leaving him with the remnants of shyness, feelings of inferiority, and a need to control and minimize his emotions. Embarking on his graduate studies in psychology and in his post-graduate training, Louis Breger was initially enamored with Sigmund Freud, yet, he slowly discovers that the form of psychotherapy that he in fact advocates is too theoretical and not sufficiently centered around the experiences of those that it seeks to treat. Louis Breger effectively calls the type of therapy he seeks to shy away from -- Sigmund Freud’s type of psychotherapy-- “Pure Gold”, metaphorically capturing Freud’s sense that psychotherapy works for everyone and that it makes everyone better. Instead, by the end of Chapter 8, the reader gets the sense that Louis Breger is more understanding of the reality that psychotherapy really isn’t for everyone, and that in order to truly work, it needs to be accessible to and centered around the experience of the patient.
             The final chapters of Breger’s book are what I find to be the most important, because these chapters not only illustrate what it is that Breger’s psychotherapy entails, subsequently what works about his form of psychotherapy, and also an account of what others didn’t find useful. Breger believes that the following characteristics are what makes his form of therapy effective: stressing not to push patients to analyze the transference but instead come to their own conclusions in their own time, being a personal and open therapist, fostering a relationship with patients such that this relationship cures prior unhealthy experiences, acknowledging mistakes, disclosing of personal information as long as it benefits the patient, having a sense of humor, allowing for and cultivating patients to undergo other forms of therapy while in psychotherapy, advocating for co-construction of insight and interpretation, and having flexible fees. These characteristics are different from the rules of traditional psychoanalysis, however, Breger’s therapy seems to have benefitted many of his patients. For those whom his therapy did not benefit, Breger acknowledges that they might have been looking for a more traditional, authoritative psychoanalyst, or for a more action-oriented cognitive-behavioral type of therapy. Overall, Breger is refreshingly honest in his perspective that informs his practice.
            Psychotherapy: Lives Intersecting advocates for a less orthodox model of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis in which the therapist doesn’t simply serve as a projection onto which a patient can place their own thoughts and feelings, but can also interact in a more active way. Louis Breger does a good job of delineating what made his style of therapy particularly effective, however, I found myself at times wondering what specifically makes a patient particularly suitable to his style as opposed to a more traditional style. However, in taking into consideration his book as a whole it becomes clear that the reader should come to this decision by himself or herself, carving their own path by learning through experience whether psychotherapy and psychoanalysis (and what specific style) would be useful.

Breger, L. (2012) Psychotherapy: lives intersecting. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 978-1-4128-4575-5
Hardcover: 144 pages: Includes bibliographical references and index.
Key Words: Psychotherapy, biography, psychotherapist and patient, psychoanalytic therapy, professional-patient relations, treatment outcomes

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Donaldson-Pressman, S. & Pressman, R.M. (1997). The Narcissistic Family: Diagnosis and Treatment.
            Reviewed by: Tina R. Lee, New York University

Stephanie Donaldson-Pressman and Robert M. Pressman present an innovative diagnosis and treatment manual focusing on survivors who grew up in families marked by narcissism, in which the focus in the family was on fulfilling the parents’ needs. The authors provide a conceptual framework for viewing the ways in which people learned to interact in their families of origin, analyzing the adult consequences of childhood patterns of interaction, and presenting strategies for dealing with those consequences in therapy.
            The manual begins with a succinct introduction to the application of the diagnosis of narcissism to the family system. It goes on to discuss the family model, and therapy with adults raised in narcissistic families. The authors lay out the framework of the narcissistic system, including skewed responsibility and blame onto the children. It ends with two appendices, which consist of an in-depth case example with a family and a broad overview of narcissism within psychoanalytic theory. The case examples (rather than case studies) are presented with abridged but authentic vignettes. The vignettes, according to the authors, serve as hooks to which concepts are attached. In particular, the authors focus on less extreme cases. The cases highlight different nuances of dysfunctional behavior within narcissistic families, such as an alcohol-troubled or incestuous family, although they note that these cases are rarely presented in such a pure form in therapy.
            The authors acknowledge the difficulty in understanding the narcissistic family system for both the therapist and survivor. One reason for this difficulty is that there are a number of overtly narcissistic in addition to blatantly abusive families. The authors address case examples in which the family seemed to function well on the surface; however, the children were expected to meet the parents’ needs rather than the other way around.
            It is the authors’ hope that this modality will fill the void for dealing with a range of patients who have lacked a framework around which to organize treatment, or workable techniques to help therapists in the delivery of treatment. The authors lay out five stages to recovery along with the obstacles within each stage for the survivor. In particular, emphasis is placed on the theme of acceptance and blame. The authors use various metaphors in clarifying difficult concepts. For instance, the authors describe how a child will revisit a well of poisonous water with different size and color buckets in the hopes that he or she will change the water. This metaphor effectively demonstrates that the child is not to blame for the parents’ behaviors, and the futility of trying to change one’s own behavior within the narcissistic family.
            To that end, the authors acknowledge the complexities of each family system. More importantly, they address the survival techniques learned by these children, who apply these techniques to their adult lives when it is often no longer necessary. What’s important to note, according to the authors, is that acceptance of the realities of growing up in a narcissistic family is more than half the battle towards recovery. Acceptance implies recognition of how we learned what we learned, and how we can relearn to make life more satisfying. The major underlying theme presented is that although the survivor has been molded by his or her past experiences, he or she need no longer be defined by them.

Donaldson-Pressman, S. & Pressman, R.M. (1997). The Narcissistic Family: Diagnosis and Treatment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
ISBN: 978-0787908706
Paperback: 181 pages: Includes bibliography references.
Key words: narcissism, narcissistic family, family system, survivor, blame, acceptance, case example

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**Fulvio, L. (2013). Reclaiming Yourself from Binge Eating: A Step-by-Step Guide to Healing.
Reviewed by: Sasha Dmochowski, University at Albany/SUNY

Recovery from eating disorder is a complex process that requires guidance and support. In her introduction to Reclaiming Yourself from Binge Eating: A Step-by-Step Guide to Healing, author Leora Fulvio reveals her own history of self-destructive eating behavior and her inspiration to help those who struggle with binge eating. With a do-it-yourself approach, this book provides practical steps that may help an individual to stop binge eating, increase their emotional awareness, and understand why they binge eat. Exercises and suggested meditations are included throughout the book to supplement the text. It should be noted that this book is not intended to substitute for the care of a licensed health professional.
            Full disclosure of having a history of eating disorder is a calculated risk. Fulvio does this artfully, and shares her personal narrative with great aplomb. As a reader, it is easier to trust the advice of an individual who has walked the recovery path that their book implements. Organized into two sections, the first part of the guide offers an in-depth view of the defining characteristics of binge eating, the criteria that comprise the disorder (i.e. “How do I know if I am a binge eater?”), and an explanatory model for both its etiology and maintaining factors. The approach is grounded in empirical science, but meant to be accessible. Before moving into this educational material, Fulvio begins by the suggesting to her readers that they will want to develop a practice of mindfulness. Clinicians of differing theoretical backgrounds who may recommend this manual to clients will find common ground with some of the meditative and thought restructuring methods she includes here. Fulvio discusses the differences between ‘disordered eating’ and ‘eating disorder,’ and also examines what we might consider a healthy body, at any size. The material covered includes physiological, social, and psychological factors that contribute to maladaptive eating, and identifies the cycles (e.g. Binge-restrict vs. non-compensatory binge) that may come about through these influences.
            While some of the titles listed for ‘binge personality types’ may seem overly simplistic at first glance, Fulvio makes a good attempt to identify and describe common personality profiles that an individual might assume as a binge eater.
Section One might be adequate on its own as an educational tool for individuals who just want to know more about what it means to binge eat. The second section of the book is where a reader assumes a less passive, more instrumental approach. This section organizes skill building into a series of steps that are designed to be addressed one at a time, and repeated if necessary.  The 34 steps should be digested gradually; each chapter might take a week or several apiece, and are to be accompanied with a journal and writing utensil in hand. Acknowledging that a journey of recovery must be deeply individual in order to be maximally effective, readers learn how to self-motivate and to more efficiently identify and manage urges and triggers. Fulvio may garner some criticism for her strongly anti-diet stance. She defines dieting as “the deliberate act of restricting food in order to achieve weight loss,” and feels that as a behavior, dieting can be just as harmful as binge eating. She recommends throwing away the bathroom scale, and gives detailed instruction on how to learn to eat intuitively. As the steps progress, readers learn how to prevent maladaptive behaviors surrounding emotions that link with food, to better navigate through relations with family and friends, and how to handle potential relapse. Self-monitoring exercises and lists of alternate or replacement behaviors, as well as detailed attention to thought restructuring seem to be some of the most helpful chapters in this section. Several appendices include extensive further resources and readings for those interested.
            Binge eating disorder is a recent addition to the recognized eating disorder diagnostic categories and as a result, few authors to date have directly addressed the mechanisms behind this specific issue. Fulvio makes an important contribution to the literature concerning recovery from binge eating disorder by helping to provide resources that have previously not been available. This book’s defining strength comes from its focus on healing the cognitive and emotional components underlying the maladaptive use of sustenance as a coping mechanism. If an individual is ready to address their problematic eating patterns and wishes to make some lasting and healthful changes, this manual appears to be a very good place to begin.

Fulvio, L. (2013). Reclaiming Yourself from Binge Eating: A Step-by-Step Guide to Healing. Winchester, UK: Anyi Books.
ISBN: 9781780996806.
E-book: 340 pp. Suggested further reading included
Key words: binge eating, eating disorder recovery

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**Golden, J. (2011). 50 Strategies to Sustain Recovery From Bulimia.
            Reviewed by: Mona Zohny, Hunter College

In Jocelyn Golden's empowering book, 50 Strategies to Sustain Recovery From Bulimia, she outlines many tactics that can be used by a recovering bulimic patient when “the therapist's door closes...or when the support group breaks up for the evening” (7). The strategies that are discussed revolve around changing one's negative thoughts to positive thoughts. Each section covers different aspects of self-doubt or self-loathing. The common negative statements that might run through a patient's head are addressed and then countered with positive self-affirmations. This book serves as a useful tool for patients who are in the process of recovering from bulimia. It is meant to be a “complement to formal treatment programs” (8). The strategies in this book are ones that Golden has developed and used herself in recovering from a 25 year battle with her eating disorder.
            This book is divided into seven sections which are then divided into chapters. The first part of the book is about learning to love and accept one's self unconditionally. The exercises in this section involve writing personalized self-affirmations and making promises to be kinder to one's self. This unconditional self-love enables the patient to realize that they deserve to get better and are capable of it. The second part is about learning more about bulimia and understanding that this destructive disease cannot solve any problems. Educating one's self is important in realizing there are many factors involved and thus alleviating self-blame. The third part is about taking control of one's recovery and realizing that it is a conscious decision that must be made.
            Golden touches upon the different ways that can help one heal such as religion/spirituality and therapy. She offers an alternative cycle to the typical binge-purge cycle that involves taking control of one's emotions and dealing with the anxiety that normally leads to binge eating specifically by regulating ones breathing. However, Golden suggests that each patient creates an alternative cycle that works to counter their own typical binge-purge cycle and suggests that this be done with a therapist. The fourth part is about interactions with people and how to change judgmental behavior towards others and one's self. The idea is that looking at these interactions will help the patient discover the toxic people, places and things that trigger his/her bulimia in order to remove them from his/her environment.
            Part Five refocuses on one's mindset, addressing issues like one's relationship with food, dealing with anger, learning to be grateful, silencing the “bulimic voice” (175) and ensuring that one has all the tools of recovery s/he needs. Part Six addresses concerns about the future and how to deal with larger issues that can cause anxiety, such as finding one's greater purpose in life. Part Seven serves as a general review of the book, allowing the patient to see how their mentality has changed before and after using these strategies to sustain recovery. Golden also provides a list of fifty things she used to believe were true and fifty affirmations to counter them, side by side.
            Each chapter starts off by addressing a particular issue that a bulimic typically deals with. Golden acknowledges these problems and discusses where they stem from. She then explains what can be done to change the negative thoughts that lead to this issue and why it is necessary to change them. Exercises are then provided at the end of the chapter for the reader to complete. For instance, Golden discusses the idea that everyone deserves to be happy despite the fact that many bulimics do not feel that they deserve it. She points out that bulimics use the incessant binge-purge cycle as a way to achieve happiness (which was based on weight and body image) and yet it only seems to cause harm. She encourages the reader to repeat affirmations such as “I deserve to be happy.” over and over again (38). While she admits that the self-affirmations may seem “ridiculous and fake” at first, she insists that it important to repeat them until they become truth (17). She discusses her path to recovery in great detail throughout the book, explaining that these affirmations slowly changed her self-loathing to ambivalence then self-like and finally self-love.
            The exercises provided at the end of each chapter really make this book unique. Some exercises involve repeating statements given out loud, while others instruct the patient to write a list of statements, which can actually be done right in the book, using the space provided. These thought provoking exercises supplement the text, serving to reinforce the strategies discussed and ensuring that the patient has mastered them before moving on. They keep the reader actively involved in his/her own recovery.
            50 Strategies to Sustain Recovery from Bulimia is easy to read and to relate to, as the author has suffered from bulimia for  a quarter of a century, and so she speaks from experience. In this way, it can certainly instil hope in patients who are struggling with their recovery and help to empower them. The book is organized in a way that  truly follows the thought process of a recovering bulimic and intervenes at every step to help instill a solution at the root of the problem (negative thoughts). The exercises provided in the book allow the patient to take realistic steps towards maintaining their recovery.

Golden, J. (2011). 50 Strategies to Sustain Recovery From Bulimia. Vienna, VA: Living As You Publications.
ISBN: 978-0-615-55874-5
Paperback, 221 pp. Bibliographical notes included.
Keywords: bulimia, eating disorders, recovery, self-love

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Goodheart, C.D. (2014). A Primer for ICD-10-CM Users: Psychological and Behavioral Conditions.
            Reviewed by: Joshua D. Wright, Hunter College of the City University of New York

Carol D. Goodheart had two purposes for writing A Primer for ICD-10 Users: Psychological and Behavioral Conditions: to inform mental health professionals of the necessary information to use the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases, and to “pave the way for the successful adoption and use of ICD-11” (p. 3). Given that the ICD, rather than the DSM is the official system used in the United States healthcare system, and the system used abroad, the guide strives to bridge the gap between mental health diagnoses in the United States and abroad, especially given globalization and the need to adopt a system that “can be adapted across a wide range of cultures (p. 4).
            The book begins with an overview of the ICD system, and points out that ICD codes are required by HIPAA standards, and thus even for those who currently use the DSM, these diagnoses are translated into ICD codes for billing and reimbursement purposes. This chapter provides the necessary background information for those that do not understand the ICD, and provides a framework for why transitioning to the ICD system is practical for psychologists in the United States.
            Chapter 3 begins to explain in detail why adoption of the ICD-10-CM is necessary, notably that it will provide better health monitoring and classification via a “wider range of diagnostic scope and content” (p. 21).
            It also addresses specific differences between ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM. The central content of the primer begins on page 21 and continues to page 50. According to the primer, the new ICD-10-CM is easy to use because it consists of ten categories of diagnoses for mental health that are easy to navigate. Multiple examples are provided utilizing the value structure of the codes that help make clear the codes’ structure, and a number of resources for easily converting DSM codes into ICD-10-CM codes are provided on page 25. Many coding incompatibilities are noted between ICD-10 and ICD-10-CM due to differences in diagnosis categories between the ICD-10 and the DSM. An example being F41.2 (mixed anxiety and depression disorder) is included in the ICD-10 but omitted in the ICD-10-CM, making the codes skip at times. Goodheart notes that for those practitioners who do not follow the modification process closely, “remember the basic rule: Use an ICD-10-CM code if you are billing a third-party payer” else the claim will be rejected (p. 35).
            Goodheart claims that “the greatest benefits of ICD-10-CM accrue mainly to those who aggregate and analyze large amounts of health data”, rather than practicing clinicians (p. 40). This will primarily improve cross comparison of morbidity and mortality statistics, quite useful for public health. As a note to epidemiologists and health researchers, GEM’s (General Equivalence Maps) are noted as way to convert from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM or vice versa for continuity purposes. Goodheart’s major complaint as to ICD-10-CM’s failure to drastically improve practice is that the ICD-10 is already 20 years old and that the main struggle in practice is the accuracy of codes, not necessarily the need for more codes, which is the main difference between ICD-10-CM and ICD-9-CM. Further problems of clinical utility, reliability, and validity are discussed.
            Before ending with the full ICD-10-CM code list for mental disorders, Goodheart gives a brief preview of ICD-11, seemingly irrelevant to US practitioners given that the switch is being made to ICD-10-CM and thus a switch to ICD-11-CM may be far in the future. The primer provides an introduction to ICD with reasons for why it’s use should be considered, explains differences between ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM, and previews the ICD-11. A useful table of corresponding ICD-11 codes to DSM diagnoses is provided on page 61 for this that are interested in further detail on ICD-11. The most useful component of this book is the appendix, consisting of the list of codes for the ICD-10-CM—something easily found via other sources. Another very important part of this book is the listed resources for converting codes on page 25.
            I am not sure this guide will “pave the way for the use of ICD-11”, but it does give an overview of the use of ICD-10-CM, assuming a previous knowledge of ICD in general. Without some previous knowledge of ICD, this primer likely will not provide sufficient information for converting it to practice. This book might be useful as a quick reference guide, but something more substantial is to be recommended for those interested in learning ICD-10-CM and the general system with no previous knowledge or experience.

Goodheart, C.D. (2014). A Primer for ICD-10-CM Users: Psychological and Behavioral Conditions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
ISBN: 9781433817090.
Spiral-bound, 64 pages. Appendix and index included.
Key words: ICD, DSM, Clinical utility, diagnostic, classification

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**Koenig, K. (2008). What Every Therapist Needs to Know About Treating Eating and Weight Issues
            Reviewed by: Mona Zohny, Hunter College

[This book] is designed for therapists who do not specialize in dealing with eating disorders but encounter clients with minor eating problems occasionally. Koenig offers many different therapeutic tools that can help clinicians assess eating issues, bring them to the surface and attempt to understand the underlying problems associated with them.
            The book is divided into eleven chapters. Chapter One discusses the range of ways in which eating problems can enter a client’s life and helps therapists expand their understanding of eating disorders and eating issues in general. This chapter also explores eating problems and body image in the context of culture. Thinness is preferred in modern western culture and this beauty standard is linked to the changes in eating habits of many women. However, Koenig points out that during therapy sessions, clients tend to focus on issues that they deem more significant such as marriage and career while putting eating issues aside. This makes it even more important for clinicians to be able to detect signs of eating issues during therapy sessions. Chapter Two brings up important issues such as self-care, sexuality, genetics, and trauma and talks about how problems in these areas could be manifested in clients through poor eating habits and body image problems.  Koenig makes the reader think about and then challenge stereotypes surrounding thinness and fatness.
            Koenig suggests viewing eating problems as issues that tend to be integrated with other problems. In Chapters Three through Nine, she brings up the many different issues that can be involved. Chapter Three is about the “biology of weight and eating. Here the author explores the physical aspects of body image, weight loss and eating issues. Koenig discusses the effect of food addictions, metabolism, body structure, allergies, hormones and medications on eating/weight issues. She acknowledges the difficulty that therapists face when trying to promote eating healthy while remaining neutral about the patient’s outcome and also explaining the biological limitations of weight loss without discouraging clients. Chapter Four discusses certain health and medical problems associated with being underweight or overweight. The author addresses the different surgical weight loss options available today such as gastric bypass and liposuction as well as the risks involved. In this section, Koenig talks about the feelings of shame that can be instilled in clients by health professionals.
            Chapter Five discusses eating habits and the influence that personality traits as well as family/the people around a client can influence those habits. She discusses defense mechanisms involving food that some clients may use such as denial, or magical thinking. Koenig points out that many clients suffer from a victim mentality that can lead to learned helplessness. This leads to the client feeling like s/he has no control over their eating habits or weight. Chapter Six teaches therapists how to recognize different eating problems and their severity in clients while providing the right tools to aid in recovery. In this way, the clinician can learn from a client how they feel about their weight and where they stand in terms of changing any existing food disturbances. Chapter Seven discusses clinical disorders such as depression and anxiety and how some symptoms of these disorders involve changes in the client’s eating habits. Koenig also talks about trauma and sexual abuse and describes how eating may be a coping strategy for many clients.
            Chapter Eight focuses on problems that arise at particular times in a client’s life such as during pregnancy or retirement as well as other miscellaneous issues that are connected to eating/weight problems. Chapter Nine is about nutrition and fitness. The author distinguishes between eating “right” and “intuitive” or “normal” eating. She points out that many clients will begin to restrict the types of food they eat while eating “right” which can lead to feelings of deprivation and then rebellion through eating unhealthy foods. In this chapter, the author discusses the importance of supporting the clients' weight goals in terms of healthy eating and dieting. Koenig talks about different ways a client can exercise in ten minute increments throughout their day and steers away from the “formal” method which would involve a full thirty minute workout at once. She offers suggestions for exercise that involve other necessary tasks like house chores, since many clients tend to be busy with their jobs and families.
            In Chapter Ten, Koenig focuses on the relationship between the clinician and client. She talks about transference and countertransference. When discussing weight, it is easy for these issues to occur and so the author provides advice for  readers based on possible scenarios such as what to do when the client is overweight and the therapist is underweight or vice versa.
            While most of the book focuses on discovering the origin of a client’s eating problems, Chapter Eleven offers various treatment options. Koenig explores the different forms of therapy such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) and support groups and discusses when each would be helpful to a client.
            What Every Therapist Needs to Know About Treating Eating and Weight Issues is a wonderful tool for therapists to gain more insight on the occasional eating and weight problems in clients. Koenig provides a thorough explanation of the wide range of issues related to eating/weight problems. The reflective questions provided for therapists keep the reader engaged while the suggested questions to ask clients enable clinicians to integrate the concepts from this book into their practice.

Koenig, K. (2008). What Every Therapist Needs to Know About Treating Eating and Weight Issues. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
ISBN: 978-0-393-70558-4
Paperback: 240 pp: Bibliographical references and index included.
Keywords: anorexia, bulimia, eating disorders, food habits, lifestyle, obesity, weight issues

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Kuchuck, S. (Ed.) (2014). Clinical implications of the psychoanalyst’s life experience: when the personal becomes professional
            Reviewed by Phillipe Kleefield, New York University

Steven Kuchuck has compiled and edited essays written by several professionals working in the field of mental health in hopes of addressing a dearth of academic writing that provides a space for clinicians to express their personal stories. Dividing Clinical Implications of the Psychoanalyst’s Life Experience into two parts, the book starts by addressing early life experiences compelling clinicians to enter the field of mental health, and culminates with essays addressing later life events within clinicians’ lives as examined through a psychoanalytic lens. This book is clearly written for professionals, but could also be useful for graduate students training to work in the field of mental health. Although the different essays cover a wide range of topics, they’re brought together by what reads as the different authors using their essays as a respite, a means by which to simply express themselves. In reading the different essays, one begins to appreciate how the writing of these very personal essays is therapeutic for professionals that spend most of their days enmeshed in the lives of other people. The usefulness of this book is more theoretical than practical, an enjoyable and interesting read into the personal lives of different clinicians
            The theme of the first part of the book appears to reflect on the personal experiences that clinicians have had which has informed how they’ve chosen to practice psychology. What is most striking about these different essays is their ability to create a sense of engagement with each author, due to the honest, personable and fair style in which they are written. In reading these essays, the sense that you are “getting” these divergent clinicians, understanding where they are coming from, and also experiencing some of what the authors are writing about, is what makes the first part of the book both palatable and palpable.
            In “Emerging from The Oppositional and the Negative,” written by Irwin Hirsch, we are taken on a journey in which Dr. Hirsch recounts how his particularly rebellious personality has affected him both personally and professionally, and through his missteps (and his achievements) he has learned how to sublimate his strong feelings in more productive ways. In “Out From Hiding,” Kenneth Frank uses what might be seen as his shyness, his fear of being seen as his true self, and his fear of success/failure to explore his upbringing and his later experiences as a professional, demonstrating how he overcame this and also how experiences with such shyness has informed his psychoanalaytic practice. In “Sweet Dreams are Made of This (or, How I Came Out and Came Into My Own),” by Eric Sherman, we read about early experiences of being “ in the closet”, learning how “coming out” took place, and lastly, seeing how these early feelings of shame, self-doubt and interpersonal difficulties have allowed Sherman to develop as a relational clinician that privileges making his patients feel accepted. Through these and other essays in the first section of this book we get a glimpse into the personal lives of different clinicians.
            The essays in the second part of the book read as more mature, yet they continue to preserve an honest and self-reflective style in their approaches to their respective subject matter. Addressing less inchoately formative experiences, these essays focus on issues that clinicians dealt with in their personal lives in their more adult years. While these different essays focus on very personal issues, they continue to weave the professional dimensions in, specifically, how the personal issue may have blended or interacted with the professional in their lives. In “Moments That Count,” written by Michael Eigen, we are taken through a philosophical journey in which Eigen seems to be searching for acceptance of his clinical style and of himself in his life, which he finds through his different psychoanalytic relationships with supervisors or more seasoned clinicians. In “Perspectives on Gay Fatherhood,” Noah Glassman and Steven Botticelli explore their own experiences with societal masculinity/femininity, gay culture and their journey through becoming fathers as members of a non-normative social group, ultimately relating this back to their professional lives. In this second part of the book, the essays compiled address the intersection between later adult experiences and working as professional in the mental health field.
            Overall,Clinical Implications of The Psychoanalyst’s Life Experience is an engaging read of interest to professionals who are looking to step out of their own figurative shoes and see where their colleagues are coming from. Steven Kuchuck aimed to create an academic space devoted to the lived experiences of clinicians and I think that through this compilation of essays he was successful in accomplishing this.

Kuchuck, S. (Ed.) (2014). Clinical implications of the psychoanalyst’s life experience: when the personal becomes professional. New York: Routledge.
ISBN: 978-0-415-50798-1
Paperback: 254 pages.
Keywords: psychoanalysts’ life histories, psychoanalysts and psychotherapy, personal accounts

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**Maine, M., Davis, W.N. & Shure, J. (Eds.). (2009). Effective clinical practice in the treatment of eating disorders: the heart of the matter.
            Reviewed by Phillipe Kleefield, New York University

"Normal eating is being able to eat when you are hungry and continue eating until you are satisfied. It is being able to choose food you like and eat it and truly get enough of it—not just stop eating because you think you should. Normal eating is being able to use some moderate constraint in your food selection to get the right food, but not being so restrictive that you miss out on pleasurable foods… In short, normal eating is flexible. It varies in response to your emotions, your schedule, your hunger, and your proximity to food." (Satter, 1987, pp. 69-70)

Margo Maine, William N. Davis and Jane Shure, collective editors of Effective Clinical Practice In The Treatment of Eating Disorders: The Heart Of The Matter, seek to create an alternate framework for clinicians that counters the traditional “Medical-Model” paradigm in the treatment of women with eating disorders. Their framework takes as its central assumption that women require specialized therapeutic ideological constructs for effective treatment—“ a Feminist Frame”—which emphasizes relationships as fundamentally critical to the well being of women. Emphasizing connection, empathy and “being present” in the therapeutic process in firm opposition to traditional clinical pedagogies of individuation, distance and separation, Maine, Davis and Shure have compiled practical articles by seasoned clinicians highlighting the qualitative component of eating disorders, and as such effectively delineate not only the therapeutic theoretical framework they envision, but also how it can be realized.
            The articles are clustered into three sections to best orient the clinician. In Effective Clinical Practices: Approaches, the theoretical crux of the book, four articles address the framework for how clinicians should think about and assess their female patients with Eating Disorders. Each article begins with a background for the respective therapeutic suggestion as evidenced by literature, followed by a clear description of what it entails, proceeded by a qualitative anecdote demonstrating this “ in action”. For example, in “Beyond The Medical Model: A Feminist Frame for Eating Disorders”, Margo Maine explores “a Feminist Frame” as a construct in more detail, highlighting its emphasis on allowing women “to feel gotten”, its fostering of openness, its minimization of the power differential between clinician and patient, its emphasis on mutual growth within the therapeutic process, and how it should be realized.
            In “Wholeness and Holiness: A Psychospiritual Perspective”, Steven Emmett equates the experience of eating disorders to the pious, devotional and obsessional form that religion can take and suggests mobilizing these qualities in therapy in such a way that patients can become more spiritual and reengage their spirit away from the escapism that eating disorders engender. In “ Individual Psychotherapy for Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia: Making a Difference”, William N. Davis outlines the two forms that eating disorders take – the diet as the distraction and the diet as all-consuming—and discusses how a clinician can engage patients through therapy such that the attachment to the eating disorder is replaced by one with the therapist and one outside themselves. In “Developing Body Trust: A Body-Positive Approach to Treating Eating Disorders”, Deb Burgard sees the adversarial relationship that women develop to their bodies as influenced by culture and social norms as something that can be fixed. Burgard advocates for women to “listen to their bodies” and understand that their bodies can regulate themselves and make up for any “mistakes” that may be perceived.
            The book’s second section, Effective Clinical Practices: Methods, offers articles addressing different therapeutic processes and the respective issues that might arise such that clinicians might be able to implement lessons from the larger “Feminist Frame” framework outlined in the first section of the book. Authors in this second section address countertransference in psychotherapy, family therapy, treating adolescents with eating disorders and other practical topics that ultimately come to serve as reference guidebooks for clinicians to utilize in their practices, or at the very least reaffirm what they have already been doing. Each article is organized by clinical subdivisions that thoroughly outline the clinical concept at work in the therapeutic process that is outlined. Overall, this methods section serves as a comprehensive and thorough resource for practicing clinicians.
            The last section of this book, Effective Clinical Practices: Special Themes, is devoted to discussing more specific psychological underpinnings that exist as issues that clinicians working with individuals with eating disorders may encounter in treatment. While these issues may be more specialized, each article is still keenly practical and thoroughly all encompassing. The articles address diverse topics, including the role of shame and compassion in the development of eating disorders, the development of negative countertransference during the treatment of eating disorders, and the role that forgiveness can play in the recovery from eating disorders. Each authors article is well developed and engaging from its inception until its culmination.
            Organized as a collection of different essays from a range of experienced clinicians on Eating Disorders, Effective Clinical Practice in the Treatment of Eating Disorders: The Heart of The Matter, Margo Maine, William N. Davis and Jane Shure have successfully put together an informal handbook for the treatment of eating disorders in women. Although the book is made up of articles written by different clinicians, each chapter consists of an article that continues to fall under the larger “Feminist Frame” umbrella, creating a refreshingly succinct read without losing the framework’s cohesiveness and clarity. While it is understandable that there is no mention of diagnostic criteria for the different eating disorder subtypes (as the book is written for clinicians that presumably have an understanding of what constitutes an eating disorder), the changing scope of eating disorders through time should warrant clear definitions. Moreover, the books characterization of women, while it may not be intended to be rigid, can come across as somewhat stereotypical, catering to an American gender binary in which men are seen as stolid and independent, and women as emotional and relational. However, on the whole, this book reaches a good balance of theory and practice, making for a good and informative read for clinicians working with women struggling to overcome eating disorders.

Maine, M., Davis, W.N. & Shure, J. (Eds.) (2009). Effective Clinical Practice in the Treatment of Eating Disorders: The Heart of the Matter. New York: Routledge,.
ISBN: 978-0-415-96461-6
Hardcover: 262 pages: Includes bibliographical references and index.
Key Words: eating disorders, therapy, mind-body relations, psychotherapeutic processes, psychotherapy methods, women

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**Maisel, R., Epston, D., & Borden, A. (2004). Biting the Hand that Starves You.
            Reviewed by: Mona Zohny, Hunter College

Biting the Hand that Starves You offers a new perspective regarding the treatment of anorexia and bulimia. Richard Maisel, David Epston and Ali Borden spent 15 years putting together this book which examines the etiology of anorexia/bulimia (a/b) and offers novel treatment options. It includes a compilation of information gathered from clients who have suffered from these eating disorders. This book is written for professionals, patients with a/b, whom the authors refer to as “insiders,” and the family and friends of insiders. The authors hope that this book will prevent sufferers of a/b from being turned “against themselves, their families and their communities. The purpose of this book for professionals is to provide a new approach to dealing with a/b; for insiders it is to “know, beyond all doubt, their enemy [a/b] from their friend”, and for the family/ friends of insiders, it is to provide insider knowledge that will allow them to help the sufferer of a/b in their lives.
            The book is divided into four parts and then each part is further divided into chapters. Throughout the book, the authors portray a/b as an external force, which they personify. The book starts with the metaphor of a concentration camp to describe the tortuous experience of having anorexia/bulimia. This term comes from “prison camp” which was coined by Ellen West in 1937 to describe life with anorexia. Part One is about the “seduction” and “imprisonment” of patients at the hands of a/b. The stories of a few young women are told, and they share some of their personal writing in which a/b tends to be depicted as a manipulative enemy disguised as a friend.
            Part Two focuses on the “turning against anorexia/bulimia”. This involves changing the way one speaks about a/b and creating an anti-a/b rhetoric to replace it. The authors discuss the dangers of using adjectives like “anorexic” and “bulimic” as they tend to become a huge part of a patient’s identity, which makes it harder for them to recover. How can they recover if this disease is something inherent? And who would they be if their treatment was successful? By labeling a/b as an antagonistic outside force, a patient will be able to defend herself against it. Some patients have even admitted that referring to themselves as anorexic/bulimic caused them to want to be a model anorexic in order to receive the necessary attention from a professional. By changing the way they think and speak about a/b, both professionals and clients will be better able to overcome this disease. Clients will be able to remain in touch with their own voice and identity.
            Part Three is about “reclaiming one’s life from anorexia/bulimia.” This involves the “back-and-forth process” of actually externalizing the illness in order to reestablish one’s connection with his or herself since technically a client has two minds—one that is anti a/b and one that believes the things that a/b promises (135). It is not uncommon for a patient to fluctuate between these two modes of thought. The authors provide ways for a professional to deal with this and what to expect in terms of progress. They recommend two specific approaches—creating a “battle” or dialogue between the patient and the illness and disengagement.
            Part Four is specifically geared towards caretakers—professionals and the families of patients. The authors explore the concept of being an ally. For parents, this means creating an anti-a/b alliance and collaboration with their daughter/son. By doing so, the parent can take out frustrations on the “external intruder” as opposed to treating it as a part of their child’s identity (239). The author’s provide many options for dealing with a/b because they believe that every case is distinct and one method will not work for all clients. In this section, the authors also discuss how professionals could handle a/b when the severity of the harm inflicted on the client increases.
            Biting the Hand that Starves You is a consequential book that changes the way in which a/b is traditionally viewed and thus provides a framework for therapists which involves the use of narrative therapy. The authors intend for this book to simply “sow [and nurture] anti-anorexic/bulimic seeds” (291). This change in traditional rhetoric will offer more approaches for recovery. The “insider knowledge” provided, which includes journal entries and poems from clients, anecdotes, and therapy session transcripts, helps readers truly grasp the difficulties involved in dealing with a/b and also that recovery is indeed possible. The use of information from a multitude of cases portrays the various ways a/b can manifest itself in different individuals.

Maisel, R., Epston, D., & Borden, A. (2004). Biting the Hand that Starves You.  New York: W.W. Norton & Co. 
ISBN: 978-0-393-70337-5
Hardcover: 314 pp.: Bibliographical references and index included.
Keywords: anorexia, a/b, anti-anorexic/bulimic rhetoric, bulimia, eating disorders

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**McCabe, R., McFarlene, T. & Olmsted, M. (2003). The Overcoming Bulimia Workbook: Your Comprehensive, Step-by-Step Guide to Recovery
            Reviewed by: Mona Zohny, Hunter College

The Overcoming Bulimia Workbook is a thorough self-help workbook designed for clients with bulimia. Randi McCabe, Traci McFarlene and Marion Olmsted take a cognitive-behavioral approach in creating a step-by-step program to treat bulimia. The book follows a chronological order as the authors walk readers through the different steps of recovery. It covers everything from the symptoms of the disorder to relapse prevention. The authors explore other issues that are related to bulimia throughout the text as well.
            The first chapter defines bulimia and its symptoms. The authors describe the characteristics and severity of this disorder as well as the range of consequences which includes kidney complications, dental problems, electrolyte imbalance, etc. They define terms such as “binge” and “compensatory behaviors” and distinguish between objective and subjective binges and “purging” and “nonpurging” behaviors. The anecdotal examples provided help put these concepts into context for the client. This chapter also contains exercises which allow the readers to determine the function of this disorder in their lives and recognize their binge and compensatory behavior patterns. Chapter Two orients the reader by giving an in depth explanation of the approach this book uses, which is derived from cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques. The authors discuss the etiology of this disorder, common risk factors and how to take the first step by beginning to self-monitor oneself.
            Chapter Three explores the set point theory which states that every individual has a “predetermined biological weight or set point” at which one’s body functions best (48). The authors discuss the ineffective nature of dieting as well as the effect that food restrictions have on binge eating, while providing research-based evidence. Chapter Four is about changing one’s relationship with food by engaging in “normal eating”. This involves creating a meal plan in order to avoid binges and ensure a nutritious diet with a healthy calorie intake per day. Chapter Five offers different coping strategies which will help clients avoid binge eating or compensatory behaviors. This includes distracting oneself, repeating certain coping phrases to remind oneself of the harms of these behaviors, and altering one’s environment. Chapter Six focuses on the cognitive aspect of bulimia and provides exercises which enable the reader to rewrite problematic eating disordered thoughts as “realistic views”. The authors provide reflective questions to help readers adjust these negative thoughts. Chapter Seven is about body image. The authors explore the concepts of thinness and fatness and offer advice on how to minimize exposure to triggers that lead to bulimic behaviors.
            Chapter Eight highlights significant underlying problems related to bulimia such as self-worth, perfectionism and core beliefs. The exercises provided aim to modify the reader’s thought processes in the context of these issues. Chapters Nine and Ten examine common coexisting issues including impulsive behaviors such as substance abuse and self-harm and clinical disorders such as depression/anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder. These chapters aim to help readers recognize which issues are more significant in their lives and use the techniques from Chapter Six which allow clients to modify negative thoughts related to these problems. Chapter Eleven addresses various family issues. The authors offer advice to clients about how to share their diagnosis/decision to recover with family members as well as advice to family members of patients with bulimia. Chapter Twelve acknowledges relapse and other setbacks and tells readers what to expect while offering advice that could prevent a slip up from turning into a full relapse period. Chapter Thirteen provides suggestions for additional support, including different types of therapy and medications.
            The Overcoming Bulimia Workbook is a coherent workbook aimed to help clients down the road to recovery. McCabe, McFarlene, and Olmsted do an excellent job simplifying difficult concepts throughout the book. The workbook covers every aspect of the recovery process and breaks it down into more manageable steps. The workbook offers tools that will reduce binge eating and compensatory behaviors. It offers readers help with other issues that may have impacted the treatment of their bulimia such as substance abuse and depression. The anecdotes and exercises provided keep the reader engaged in his or her recovery.

McCabe, R., McFarlene, T., Olmsted, M. (2003) The Overcoming Bulimia Workbook: Your Comprehensive, Step-by-Step Guide to Recovery. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.
ISBN: 978-1-57224-326-2
Paperback: 225 pp: Bibliographical references and further reading suggestions included.
Keywords: bulimia, cognitive behavioral therapy, eating disorders, self-help

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Picucci, M. (2012). Focalizing Source Energy: Going Within to Move Beyond.
            Reviewed by: Rachel Vitale, New York University

Flip past the beautiful color explosion of bold orange and cooling blues on the cover, and dive into an intense interaction between client and therapist. Michael Picucci hits you one after the next with a total of four moving pieces, each broken into two parts: one part written from the perspective of the client, and the other written from the perspective of the therapist. This powerful introduction not only prepares the reader for what’s to come next, but it allows for an understanding of why one would pick up this book to begin with. It sets a sort of let-me-take-care-of-you tone. Or even a, let-me-help-you-help-yourself type essence. Are you feeling lost, insecure, unsure? Do you feel a disconnection between yourself and others, maybe even between your mind and body? This book is meant to lift you up and place you down right where you want to be. That much is clear just from reading the introduction.
            These client-therapist sessions highlight the concept of trust in oneself and trust in others, which is also a key theme throughout the book as a whole. Understanding the importance of trust will bring readers closer to an understanding of source energy. Following the introduction is a chapter devoted entirely to source energy. For those who are not familiar with this concept, the book provides a detailed explanation covering everything from what it means to how to embody this force. Whether you’re a twenty-one year old college student who’s never heard the term source energy or a middle-aged therapist who’s been practicing for years, this book tries to speak to you. It will speak to you in whatever way you need it in that given moment.
            The next section of the book examines what blocks source energy. This information is informative and also interesting because the author pairs explanations with true stories from his own personal life. Again, this can appeal to a wide range of readers. A reader may say to himself mid-chapter, this very situation, or a similar occurrence has happened in my own life. Someone who has never experienced any situation relevant to source energy may look back after reading this book only to discover that they have. And they may know how to handle the situation in the future.
            The following section describes how to awaken source energy. While this book is a great source of information, it can also serve as a self-help book. All of the pieces are laid out for the reader; it is up to them to choose whether or not to practice. From my experience, discipline is a key trait in successful source energy. The book is a quick, easy read, and packed with tons of useful methods for someone who wishes to practice awakening source energy.
            The book is concluded by a note from the author, which is my personal favorite part. It’s not simply what words the author chooses to leave his readers with, but more so the pure honesty that you can hear behind each page. This is an honest concept written by an honest therapist crafted into an honest book. And honestly, it’s good.

Picucci, M. (2012). Focalizing Source Energy: Going Within to Move Beyond. Longboat Key, FL: Telemachus Press LLC.
ISBN: 978-1-938135-74-3
Paperback: 69 pp: Does not include index.
Key words: focalizing, body-mind connection, source energy, spirituality

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Rand, M. (2013). Body Mindfulness Workshop with Dr. Marjorie Rand [DVD].
            Reviewed by: Chiroshri Bhattacharjee, Stony Brook University.

Body Mindfulness is a technique that incorporates an Eastern approach to body alignment in order for the energy to move around the body while regulating the nervous system. Dr. Marjorie Rand, a well-known somatic psychotherapist with 36 years of experience in the field, demonstrates an interactive workshop that can serve as a comprehensive guide for beginners interested in practicing Body Mindfulness. The workshop is organized in four parts.
            Each part focuses on different body parts and introduces different techniques. During the course of the workshop, Dr. Rand explains the vitality and the benefits of Body Mindfulness. She also encourages continuing the techniques on a regular basis for improvement in both physical and mental health.
            In the first part of the workshop, Dr. Rand delineates the symptoms and the other effects of anxiety. She explains anxiety as: “bunch of insects floating around in your head and all the pressure is in the head”. Later, she proceeds to explain the ways to tackle anxiety, stress and other panic disorders. The first technique she shares is body alignment. This ensures that there are no blocks in the body and the energy can easily flow down to the feet. According to Dr. Rand, body alignment is a crucial step to body mindfulness because it allows the energy to flow through the body thus regulating the nervous system.
            In the second part of the workshop, Dr. Rand demonstrates a breathing technique with a focus on pressure points. She explains the importance of the occipital points and the benefits from breathing and applying pressure on these points. She also explains the neural networks and the connection between muscles and brain. She further demonstrates a breathing technique that requires ‘sighing’ while breathing out. This technique works the jaws and the throat and causes a vibration which in turn opens up the body and allows the energy to travel easily. The breathing technique plays a very vital role in body mindfulness, since breathing energizes the body whereas exhaling opens up the blocks. With the explanation and proper demonstration, the techniques are easy to follow. Dr. Rand states that self-regulating the nervous system through breathing, movements and mindfulness techniques work extremely well to battle chronic pain issues, depression, anxiety, feelings of overwhelm and panic. These techniques can also be practiced to reduce stress hormones and create a balance in life.
            In Part 3, Dr. Rand focuses on chest exercise, demonstrating techniques that help self-regulate the chest movements. She further describes anxiety and its negative effects. Anxiety causes the diaphragm to contract but the chest exercise techniques can help relax the diaphragm thus ensuring normal breathing. In part 3B, Dr. Rand focuses on the lower body release technique, demonstrating abdominal breathing which is quite different from the breathing shown in the first two parts. However, it follows the same principle of energizing and relaxing the body at the same time to obtain optimal balance.
            Part 4 in the DVD is the closing and the discussion wherein Dr. Rand asked for feedback from her participants. The participants had the opportunity to ask questions and give their feedback. Overall, the participants appeared to be satisfied and content with the workshop. This part was difficult to follow since the camera didn’t focus on the participants; instead it was a screen with information about the workshop.
            According to Dr. Rand, Body Mindfulness is relevant for people of all ages from children to the elderly. It is encouraged for people to follow the routine as a family or as couples. According to Dr. Rand, this would have a significant positive impact on the relationship and family. If the participants do as Dr. Rand suggests in the workshop, the exercises can be very useful to learn to self-regulate breathing patterns, control the negative emotions, relax the muscles and the diaphragm, energize the body and most importantly, tackle the daily stress and anxiety in life. The DVD is designed for beginners with no prior knowledge. It is easy to follow, introduces the participants to the ideas of Body Mindfulness and allows them to go through some of the preliminary steps and techniques. The techniques demonstrated in the workshop can be practiced anywhere and as many times as the person desires. It is important to follow the order in which the workshop is set up because each part leads to the next. The first part introduces the basic body alignment and gradually introduces different techniques throughout the workshop. It is recommended that the participants go through each segments of the DVD in order to get optimum results.

Rand, M. (2013). Body Mindfulness Workshop with Dr. Marjorie Rand [DVD].
www.drrandbodymindtherapy.com
Key Words: body mindfulness, breathing techniques, body alignment

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**Ross, C. (2009). The Binge Eating and Compulsive Overeating Workbook: An Integrated Approach to Overcoming Disordered Eating
            Reviewed by: Mona Zohny, Hunter College

The Binge Eating and Compulsive Overeating Workbook is a self-help book designed to aid in the recovery of binge eating disorder (BED) and compulsive overeating (CO). This workbook is a tool for patients with eating disorders, specifically BED and CO. It will teach patients to understand their bodies and the origin of their disease while providing the necessary skills and strategies to help change their lives through recovery. As a director of an inpatient eating disorder program, Ross created this integrative treatment for her patients. This workbook explores many of the issues that are associated with BED and CO, including lifestyle, malnutrition and psychological/medical problems.
           The author takes an integrative approach, focusing on the healing of the body, mind and spirit. Part 1 is about healing the body. It covers the importance of accepting one's diagnosis with BED or CO and making a commitment to one's health. The focus here is making healthier life style changes.This includes exercise and adjusting one's natural hunger cues by developing and following a personalized and nutritious meal plan while avoiding trigger foods that a patient can't resist and tends to overeat or binge on.
           Part 2 focuses on the healing of the mind. The author discusses many conventional treatments for BED and CO, including medications and cognitive behavior therapy. Ross examines negative body image and how to change it. She focuses on developing a healthy relationship with one's body by learning to listen to [one's] body (83) in order to realize when your body and (eating disorder) mind conflict. The author also addresses particular behaviors of people with BED or CO and the emotions that underlie these actions.  This section acknowledges that eating disorders can also be accompanied by mood or personality disorders and offers both traditional and alternative treatment options, including herbal supplements, acupuncture and massage therapy. Ross discusses the idea that one's core beliefs, which are rule[s] about life that usually develop in response to a situation in which you feel your survival is threatened or for which you do not have adequate coping skills, may prevent a patient from reaching certain goals in their journey of recovery (96). In order to change one's core beliefs, one must first identify his or her major life events and then figure out how s/he dealt with it at the time. The coping strategy will shed light on what the underlying core belief is. In this way, one will be able to see how that has affected his or her behaviors in the context of BED or CO and be able to change accordingly.
           Part 3 focuses on the healing of the spirit, which the author also refers to as one's life force ... higher power ... or ... sense of self (160). This section focuses on managing stress and nourishing one's spirit. The author identifies the different manifestations of stress and emphasizes the importance of recognizing signs of it in order to avoid health problems. Ross offers different methods of stress reduction such as yoga and tai chi. Patients are instructed to develop a personalized stress management plan. According to Ross, nourishment is key to remaining connected to one's spirit. Disconnect can cause one to overeat, abuse [one's] body and develop medical problems (162). Nourishing one's spirit involves indulging in good feelings by encouraging oneself to forgive, be grateful and find ways to inspire oneself and feel awe.
           The conclusion outlines five major steps a patient should take towards recovery. These steps include putting one's health first, exploring all of the different roads to healing (176), keeping one's promises to oneself, doing whatever makes one feel (178), and finally, seeking support when needed.
           Throughout the book, Ross provides many different exercises for the reader to complete. These exercises ensure that the patients are committed and taking an active role in their recovery. They will have learned more about themselves. This self-awareness will enable them to take control of their lives and overcome BED or CO.
            The Binge Eating and Compulsive Overeating Workbook is a thorough and empowering book. It covers many of the issues that are associated with BED and CO. The author provides thought provoking exercises that encourage the reader to open up and learn more about themselves in order to maintain control over their eating disorder. Ross's integrative medicine approach makes this self-help workbook exceptional. She discusses alternatives to conventional treatments such as acupuncture, herbal supplements and massage therapy. Ross also discusses the research that supports the treatments that are recommended in this workbook.

Ross, C. (2009). The Binge Eating and Compulsive Overeating Workbook: An Integrated Approach to Overcoming Disordered Eating. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.
ISBN: 978-1-572-24591-4
Paperback: 200 pp: Suggested further reading on Resource List and bibliographical references included.
Keywords: binge eating, compulsive overeating, eating disorders, recovery, self-help, integrative medicine, nutrition

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**Sandoz, E., Wilson, K. & Dufrene, T. (2011). The Mindfulness and Acceptance Workbook for Bulimia: A Guide to Breaking Free from Bulimia Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.
            Reviewed by: Mona Zohny, Hunter College

The Mindfulness and Acceptance Workbook for Bulimia is a self-help work book designed for clients suffering from bulimia. Emily K. Sandoz, Kelly G. Wilson and Troy Dufrene focus primarily on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). In this way, the goal of this book is to help people with bulimia learn to accept themselves and commit themselves to moving forward in order to live meaningful lives. The authors emphasize two goals: valued living and psychological flexibility. All of the concepts discussed and exercises provided are discussed in the context of these goals.
            This book consists of three parts that are further divided into chapters. Part One focuses on defining bulimia and reflecting, via guided meditation, on the three components of this disorder: binge eating, compensatory behaviors and body image. In Chapter 2, the authors clarify that ACT is not meant to solve problems or rid the client of pain. The idea is that, the steps towards recovering from bulimia are known, but the authors prefer to look at the larger picture and view this bulimia in the context of the reader’s life. They expand on the two main goals of this workbook. The first goal, valued living is described as patterns of action that put [one] in touch with [his or her] values [things one cares about and acts upon]” (30). The second goal is psychological flexibility which is defined as “being fully aware of and open to[one’s] ongoing experiences as a fully conscious human being as [one] act[s] in a way that serves [his or her] values” (31). This section also provides a self-assessment for clients to determine their personal values. The idea is that one cannot alter his or her actions if s/he is not fully aware of them.
            Part Two is primarily about mindfulness. The authors discuss the importance of being in the present and maintaining full awareness. They offer a guided meditation activity to help clients notice “being present” and then an activity that involves practicing mindfulness in their lives. One benefit of mindfulness is that it will prevent negative thoughts from lingering. The authors also dedicate a section on the “self-as-context” which involves the reader completing up to fifty “I am/I am not” statements in order to decipher any stories, or self-concepts regarding their bulimia, that surface. Then a guided meditation activity allows the clients to ruminate on stories that have created a “pull” or compelled clients to engage in certain eating behaviors. This contemplation should be a continuous act. The authors compare it to ripping curtains off a window as opposed to opening the blinds to glance outside. Another issue that the authors bring up is fusion, which is when one is unable to separate his or herself from his or her thoughts and experiences. Defusion techniques are offered to counter this phenomenon as a way to let negative feelings pass.
            One important aspect of living a meaningful life for clients with bulimia is learning acceptance. The authors use an interesting metaphor of an uninvited guest that shows up to one’s party to describe the presence of bulimia in one’s life. The idea is that ignoring this guest will only make them seem that much more annoying, giving this guest the upper hand. The authors suggest simply acknowledging and accepting this guest while carrying on with one’s “party” (93).
            Part Three serves as a review of the concepts discussed in the previous sections. Readers are encouraged to integrate certain ACT techniques to create a system that works for them. Questionnaires are provided in this section, such as the “valued living” questionnaire, which will help clients track their progress by comparing these questionnaires to the ones they filled out in previous sections. The authors suggest taking a break from the book at this point. Then, in the next chapter, they discuss issues of relapse and seeking support in Chapter 8. The book comes with a CD, which contains audio tracks for the guided meditation exercises provided in each section.
            The Mindfulness and Acceptance Workbook for Bulimia offers a counter-intuitive framework for dealing with problematic eating behaviors. Sandoz, Wilson and Dufrene use a warm and friendly tone to simplify complex concepts for sufferers of bulimia. It differs from current self-help books because it does not aim to treat bulimia. Instead, the goal is for readers to learn to live a more meaningful life by embracing their problem. The meditation exercises allow readers to confront some of the pain associated with their bulimia and come to terms with it. The book then provides the tools necessary, such as being aware/present and defusion, to reduce the behaviors associated with bulimia.

Sandoz, E., Wilson, K. & Dufrene, T. (2011). The Mindfulness and Acceptance Workbook for Bulimia: A Guide to Breaking Free from Bulimia Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications
ISBN: 978-157224-735-2
Paperback: 133 pp: Bibliographical references and further reading suggestions included.
Keywords: acceptance and commitment therapy, bulimia, eating disorders, self-help

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**Scott, T. (2011). The anti-anxiety food solution: how the foods you eat can help you calm your anxious mind, improve your mood & end cravings.
Reviewed by Phillipe Kleefield, New York University

If you are living in a developed country, especially one like the United States, thoughts about food, appearance and the body can be daily worries that consume high amounts of much needed energy. Despite this reality, Trudy Scott, CN, has written a refreshing guide linking food with both mood and health, avoiding reference to concerns about appearance or the body, arguing that for people suffering from anxiety, mood issues or physical issues ( ie. digestive disorders), changing what you eat may just be enough to alleviate these issues. In The Anti-Anxiety Food Solution, Trudy Scott presents a comprehensive solution for people experiencing negative mental and physical health symptoms, drawing on dietary changes, brain chemistry information, lifestyle changes, supplement information, and other information to effectively target and eliminate unwanted symptoms.
            Trudy Scott’ book doesn’t just tell you about what your diet should consist of, she is good about demonstrating this through charts and tables, and her first chapter is the critical chapter that will allow you to figure out what might be wrong and how to go about fixing this. In “Figure Out Your Optimum AntiAnxiety Diet” Trudy Scott discusses four diets which she approves of, and she recommends that everyone start for two weeks with a combination of all the restrictions she mentions and to slowly start adding these restricted foods as a means of knowing whether you have a particular food sensitivity. In discussing the four different diets, she does a thorough job of addressing what can and cannot be eaten, making specific (as opposed to general) references to foods, ultimately leading to a very concrete picture of what the diets will consist of. Although it is recommended to take two weeks to eat a diet with the highest level of restrictions, the four different diets, while all healthy, do range in their respective restrictions, allowing the reader some choice in choosing which diet they will subscribe to. Following these diets, according to Ms. Scott, should lead to a relief of negative physical and mental health symptoms.
            In addition to making dietary changes, Ms. Scott is very strict about sugar, caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. In the second chapter, sugar is linked to issues maintaining healthy blood sugar levels which is then linked to anxiety and mood issues, the recommendation being that sugar should be avoided, especially artificial sweeteners. In the third chapter, coffee, alcohol and nicotine are also explored in reference to anxiety and mood, with the recommendation being that these different substances should be avoided. As these recommendations might be be too restrictive for people, Ms. Scott does stress using moderation if complete avoidance cannot be achieved.
            The subsequent chapters discuss a range of topics, from food sensitivities to amino acids. In the fourth chapter, the book stresses the importance of eliminating any foods that one might be sensitive to, and offers a controlled way by which to assess this. Possible food sensitivities include gluten, dairy, grainy starches, grainy vegetables, grainy legumes and having low blood histamine. The fifth chapter examines digestion, how digestion functions, how it can be improved overall through changing eating habits, correcting for low stomach acids or pancreatic enzymes, eating fiber and drinking water, and balancing bacterial parasites or candida overgrowth. The sixth chapter is what is most unique and interesting about this book as it explores a link between brain chemistry and amino acids, suggesting that amino acid supplementation can alter brain chemistry to improve mood, anxiety and digestion. Addressing a means by which to supplement one of the diets delineated in the second chapter, or realistically, for those that may not stay faithful to any of the diets, Trudy Scott explores how various amino acid supplements have been linked to common neurotransmitters that are integral in regulating digestion, anxiety and mood, and how particular amino acid supplements might be used to treat these issues. One of the several amino acids explored is GABA, both a neurotransmitter and an amino acid. GABA’s role in the body has been linked with regulating anxiety, agitation, stress and sleep, and the idea is that if you have enough GABA you will feel relaxed and rested and thus will not having cravings to eat certain unhealthy foods.Specifically, someone may have low levels of GABA because enough isn’t able to cross the blood brain barrier. GABA supplements are introduced and discussed as a means of regulating the possible low levels being experienced. The chapter does this as well for serotonin—a neurotransmitter, catecholamines—small amino acids that are derivatives of tyrosine-- and endorphins—inhibitory neurotransmitters, and overall, is very specific about how to introduce these amino acids into a diet.
            Chapters 7 and 8 discuss a condition called Pyroluria, zinc, vitamin B6, hormone imbalances, medications, other nutrients and lifestyle changes. Pyroluria is a condition that involves a faulty synthesis of heme which results in elevated levels of kryptopyrroles and HPL, which bind to zinc and vitamin B6 to eliminate them from the body in great amounts. This resulting nutritional deficiency can result in several issues and can be counterbalanced through zinc supplements, vitamin B6 supplements and through taking certain fatty acids. Chapter 8 explores other basic vitamins and supplements, like B vitamins, iron, vitamin C, magnesium and calcium, vitamin D, omega 3’s and Omega 6’s, and theanine and lactium. Hormonal imbalances are also addressed, such as adrenal dysfunction, thyroid dysfunction, and sex hormone imbalances. Lastly, an overview of different toxins to avoid are provided, an overview of how to pay attention to side effects when taking particular medications, and an overview of different lifestyle modifications and changes that need to be made in order to feel your best and minimize mental and physical health issues.
            The Anti-Anxiety Food Solution is a comprehensive guide that helps in dealing with anxiety, mood issues and negative physical symptoms using an alternative to traditional medication. Written for anyone suffering with moderate to severe negative symptoms, Trudy Scott’s book is a handy and thorough antidote.

Scott, T. (2011). The Anti-Anxiety Food Solution: How the foods you eat can help you calm your anxious mind, improve your mood & end cravings.Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.
ISBN:978-1-57224-925-7-1
Paperback: 192 pages.
Keywords:anxiety disorders, diet therapy, nutrition, psychological aspects, food sensitivities

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Slingerland, E. (2014). Trying Not to Try: The Ancient Chinese Art and Modern Science of Spontaneity.
          Reviewed by Phillipe Kleefield, New York University

Edward Slingerland has written both an interesting and informative book in Trying Not To Try, which explores the notion of spontaneity and addresses how one can achieve it. Spontaneity is usually thought of as acting in an undetermined way or making a decision in the moment, however, Slingerland offers a more nuanced definition, positing that spontaneity is more like a “state of flow” in which someone isn’t necessarily thinking “how to” but is in fact “doing”. Furthermore, spontaneity, although usually thought of as describing someone who might be impulsive or unplanned, is conceptualized by Slingerland as requiring practice, effort and mastery. This notion of spontaneity has historical precedent that is deeply rooted and highly theorized in Chinese culture, effectively called Wu-Wei, or non-action (non-doing). Edward Singerland ventures into discussing Wu-Wei through various chapters, advocating this as a lifestyle that can lead to success, productivity and happiness.
            In the first and second chapters, Wu-Wei is discussed using traditional anecdotes, references to scientific literature and examples of people that have come to practice this lifestyle of spontaneity. The first chapter is highly informative and thorough as it takes the reader through We-Wei as a concept and elaborates as to what makes it so effective and desirable. Building on this conceptualization, the second chapter reflects on how Wu-Wei< manifests itself through someone’s social life – charming, relaxed, trustworthy – and through one’s spiritual sensibility – feeling connected, purposeful and happy—to create a sense of “effortless perfection” through trying to try less. Both of these chapters are crucial for the theoretical understanding of what Edward Slingerland is seeking to recommend, however, these chapters do not inform the reader how this higher state can be achieved.
            The next chapters of Trying Not To Try complement the first two chapters in providing a good account of how someone might go about making changes that will allow them to achieve Wu-Wei. In the third chapter, Slingerland brings up and explores Confucian dogma and philosophy as something that is filled with tension and that through very ritualized practices, is intended to allow someone to achieve Wu-Wei. This chapter is particularly interesting because it counters a common assumption that Confucianism is very dogmatic and strict, as Slingerland argues that it is essentially meant to cultivate spontaneity. In the fourth chapter, the theme of contradiction and tension continues as Slingerland explores Laozi, which essentially argues for a value system in which you don’t strive for anything nor are you attached to a particular result; you just do for the sake of doing. In the subsequent chapters the moral values of Wu-Wei are explored as natural and necessary, the notion of “going with the flow” is presented and analyzed, the paradoxes involved in the various chapters are given specific attention, and what can be taken away from Wu-Wei conceptually. These practical sections of the book are thorough, unique and highly engaging, and can really allow someone to learn how to put some of these behaviors into practice in their lives.
            Whereas most of the book is focused on exploring ancient conceptualizations of spontaneity, or Wu-Wei, Edward Slingerland does do a good job of interweaving more westernized scientific literature and research into the different chapters. These additions are compelling as they complement the more “Eastern” approaches with tangible, experimental evidence, something that many readers of this book will likely perceive as soothing and calming. This research is truly balancing and provides a very modernizing perspective.
            Trying Not To Try is a unique, interesting and informative read as it explores the notion of spontaneity as something that requires practice, patience and skill. Framing spontaneity as something ideal and extremely positive is highly novel in light of western ideologies that stress routine, organization, planning ahead and “being on top of it. Through exploring ancient Chinese conceptualizations, Edward Slingerland examines spontaneity, or Wu-Wei, in the context of practical lifestyle changes that can lead someone to achieve a state of “flow”.

Slingerland, E. (2014). Trying Not to Try: The Ancient Chinese Art and Modern Science of Spontaneity. New York, NY; Penguin Random House Company.
ISBN978-0-7704-3761-9 
Paperback: 285 pages: Bibliographical references included
Keywords: spontaneity, wu-wei, lifestyle changes

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Van den Bos, G. (2013). APA Dictionary of Clinical Psychology
Reviewed by: Dorothy Luczak, Columbia University

The APA Dictionary of Clinical Psychology is another step forward in the attempt to help define the numerous topics within psychology. In fact, this is the fourth edition since its inception in 2006. In this copy, there are 11,000 entries compared to the original 25,000. While this edition is not as expansive as the first, the APA Dictionary of Clinical Psychology caters to a specific audience whereas the original was a compilation of words that spanned all facets of psychology. The APA Dictionary of Clinical Psychology comes with the aim of assisting those working within the field.
            What makes [this book] different from previous editions is that the entries were chosen for their relation to clinical practices, such as assessment, evaluation, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, etc. The hope was to “prove a convenient and highly focused alternative for women and men at the very heart of the psychological enterprise.” However, this dictionary is not exclusively for clinicians, and is also recommended to “students - especially those in training as clinicians” and “consultants to professionals in such fields as medicine, law, social work and consumer relations”.
            As a resource, the APA Dictionary of Clinical Psychology is a very well organized and accessible tool. The definitions are concise and most are not longer than a few sentences. There are also two appendixes that separate the content into biographical entries and psychotherapeutic entries. The biographical entries contain rudimentary information about very important figures in the field, such as Freud, Pavlov, and Jung. The psychotherapeutic entries contain many different types of therapies, trainings, and analyses.
            While this dictionary is clearly a well-written and organized resource, I would recommend any interested party to wait before purchasing. The preface mentions a second edition coming out later in 2014 and it would be beneficial to examine the differences between the two editions. Also, for those more technologically savvy the APA offers this edition in a digital format. So the publishers provide the option of saving some space on the bookshelf and not having to pull out the heavy physical tome.

Van den Bos, G. (2013). APA Dictionary of Clinical Psychology. Washington, DD: American Psychological Associations.
ISBN: 9781433812071
Hardcover: 636 pp: includes appendixes.
Keywords: psychology, clinical, American Psychological Association, dictionary, definitions

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