Resource List 02: Reviewed Psychotherapy Books



Complied under the direction of Jacqueline A. Carleton Ph.D. for the IJP (Nov 2013).

Brandt, A. (2013). 8 Keys to Eliminating Passive-Aggressiveness.

Bulik, C.M. (2012). The Woman in the Mirror: How to Stop Confusing What You Look Like With Who You Are.

Cain, S. (2013). Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking.

Castonguay, L.G. & Hill, C.E. (2012). Transformation in Psychotherapy: Corrective Experiences Across Cognitive Behavioral, Humanistic, and Psychodynamic Approaches.

Deida, D. (1997). The Way of the Superior Man: A Spiritual Guide to Mastering the Challenges of Women, Work, and Sexual Desire.
Deida, D. (2005). Dear Lover: A Woman’s Guide to Men, Sex, and Love’s Deepest Bliss.

Denborough, D. (2014). Retelling the Stories of Our Lives: Everyday Narrative Therapy to Draw Inspiration and Transform Experience.

Dweck, C.S. (2006). Mindset: The New Psychology of Success.

Firestone, R., Firestone, L. & Catlett, J. (2013). The Self Under Siege: A Therapeutic Model for Differentiation.

Grawe, K. (2004). Psychological Therapy.

Grawe, K. (2007). Neuropsychotherapy: How the Neurosciences Inform Effective Psychotherapy.

Herman, A. (2011). The Body Electric.

Lehmann, E. (2012). Resilient-You: Bending With Strong Winds.

Marks-Tarlow, T. (2008). Psyche’s Veil.

Marks-Tarlow, T. (2012). Mirrors of the Mind: The Psychotherapist as Artist.

Maroda, K.J. (2004). The Power of Counter-transference: Innovations in Analytic Technique.

McMain, S. & Wiebe, C. (2013). Psychotherapy Essentials To Go: Dialectic Behavior Therapy for Emotion Dysregulation.

Schmidt, J.S. (2013). Longing for the Blessing: Midrashic Voices from Toldot.

Shaw, D. (2014). Traumatic Narcissism: Relational Systems of Subjugation.

Tweedy, R. (2012). The God of the Left Hemisphere: Blake, Bolte Taylor, and the Myth of Creation.

Wachtel, P.L. (2011). Inside the Session: What Really Happens in Psychotherapy.

Brandt, Andrea (2013). 8 Keys to Eliminating Passive-Aggressiveness.
            Reviewed by: Joshua D. Wright, Hunter College of The City University of New York

Passive-aggressive behavior is more common than most think and there are likely many times that people act in a passive-aggressive way without the realization of doing so. This behavior can be destructive to relationships and can carry over from one relationship to the next, while hurting loved ones and the perpetrator. Andrea Brandt strives to address this concern in 8 Keys to Eliminating Passive-Aggressiveness by guiding readers through practical steps to dealing with anger in a proactive way and eliminating passive-aggressive behavior.
            Written for a general audience of those who either have identified their own passive-aggressive behavior, or who may be involved in passive-aggressive relationships, Brandt has created a fluid narrative using expertly drafted anecdotes taken from her clinical experience and practical exercises to illuminate concepts. As a psychotherapist, it is no surprise that Brandt describes the origins of passive-aggressive behavior as a suppression of anger due to societal constraints, and an outwardly passive response to situations due to perceived anxiety to express that anger openly. The eight keys illuminated throughout the book have the goal of revealing hidden anger, teaching the use of body sensation to understand and express true emotion, teaching assertive communication, and guiding people to productive conflict negotiation. According to Brandt, all of this may require "the healing of childhood wounds" (Intro, xxx).
            The key strength of this book is the anecdotal stories that line the pages. Each of the eight keys to reducing passive-aggressive behavior is elaborated through its own dedicated chapter and each begins with an anecdotal story to demystify passive-aggression and reflect its various manifestations. Furthermore, each of the primary chapters contains practical exercises that could be used at home or integrated into a comprehensive therapy program. In Chapter 1, Brandt introduces the use of a journal to aid in understanding thoughts, feelings, and actions in situations with the goal of understanding anger. In Chapters 2 and 3, one can use checklists to help identify irrational beliefs and unmet needs respectively. Chapter 4 uses brainstorming techniques, while Chapter 5 has the reader practice forming assertive statements in the context of specific situations. Similarly, the remaining chapters contain useful exercises that do not require any prerequisite knowledge in order to participate. The chapters inevitably end with the completion of the introductory anecdote to illustrate how the practical changes and exercises learned could potentially work in one’s own life. The accessibility of this style lends to a light reading that is informative without going into unnecessary detail about underlying theory and research. Furthermore, it allows the reader to jump to sections and exercises that are relevant rather than requiring a through-and-through reading.
            For some, the lack of research and citations may turn them away but if one takes this book for its intended purpose, there is something to gain from perusing its pages. General readers will gain intimate knowledge of their own behavior and suggestions for eliminating passive-aggressiveness. Likewise, practicing psychotherapists will be exposed to relevant exercises that can be immediately incorporated in the clinical setting. This is a hands-on guide, not a research manuscript.
            The final chapter reconnects to the introduction, elaborating on the initial example of passive-aggressiveness and providing a glimpse into how using the eight keys detailed within the text might change a previous relationship for the better and thus the book guides readers through the life of Sarah and Tom as they learn how to negotiate conflict without the destruction of passive-aggressiveness. Ultimately the path, Brandt elucidates "[is not] a succession of doors, rooms you can pass through toward some magical destination" (p. 180). Instead she states, "you’ll be moving back and forth among the keys and eventually realize adjusted relationships with more enabled responses and less reliance on passive-aggression" (p. 180).

Brandt, Andrea (2013). 8 Keys to Eliminating Passive-Aggressiveness. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
ISBN: 978-0-393-70846-2
Paperback: 184 pages, Index included.
Keywords: Passive-Aggression, Relationships, Anger, Communication, Assertiveness

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Bulik, Cynthia M. (2012). The Woman in the Mirror: How to Stop Confusing What You Look Like With Who You Are.                      Reviewed by: Nataliya Rubinchik, Hunter College

To be a woman means to fight for life. Women spend their lives fighting against what they see in the mirror and are rarely satisfied. Women have been valued for their appearance throughout history, and despite how far society has come; men still outnumber women in political positions, women are still paid less than men for the same jobs, and equality is still somewhere far in the horizon. Young girls are taught that they are weaker and that the boy should win. Girls are taught to stay quiet and that is what leads them as women to have such low self and body esteem.
            Precisely for these reasons, Dr Cynthia Bulik wrote The Woman in the Mirror: How to Stop Confusing What You Look Like With Who You Are. Dr Bulik’s goal is to teach women to be able to separate self-esteem from body esteem. Self-esteem is how we feel about ourselves as a whole; body esteem is just a small part of self-esteem, how we feel about our physical appearance. Many women feel discouraged, put down, and silenced but instead of changing who they are and being heard, they change how they look. They gain a minor victory, but the end result will never be in their favor unless they learn to change what needs to be changed, not settle for what is easy to change. Dr Bulik’s book is a great tool for learning how to get rid of the little voice in your head that never stops criticizing.
            The book is divided into two parts û the first part talks about how women are taught to feel about themselves from ‘elementary school to the nursing home’ and the second part gives exercises and tools to readers to challenge what they have been taught and learn to chip away that criticizing voice. For the first few years of their lives, girls fantasize about being princesses; they learn from what they see on TV, in magazines, their dolls. The very first time a girl compares what she looks like to what she sees, her fantasy is over and reality sets in. From then on, her life will be full of self-criticism about her weight, her hair, her skin, her posture, etcetera. And as soon as she starts school and the bullies and popular kids are introduced, self-esteem and body esteem both can begin to plummet. This struggle with how one looks can last for life.
            Dr Bulik includes case studies and examples to help her readers understand that almost every woman in the world experiences what her readers do, almost regardless of circumstance. One of the first examples is about the Crown Princess of Sweden who suffered from anorexia nervosa. If a real princess isn’t happy with herself, what is to stop any woman from not being happy with herself?
            The intervention methods Dr Bulik includes can be helpful to women of any age willing to try to change how they see themselves. Throughout the book are exercises for the reader to try with examples to show the reader what to do. Every chapter begins with a quote that women of all ages can relate to and find inspiration or sympathy with. Dr Bulik also includes a chapter on how to shelter future generations, which answers questions mothers might have about how to help their daughters not succumb to the pressures of society. This book is clear and easy-to-follow. It is written in a way to combine the experiences of Dr Bulik - a woman, a psychologist and a mother - in a way that can help improve self-esteem and the body esteem of all women.

Bulik, Cynthia M. (2012). The Woman in the Mirror: How to Stop Confusing What You Look Like With Who You Are.
New York, NY: Walker Publishing Company, Inc.
ISBN: 978-0-8027-1999-7.
Paperback: 262 pages.
Does not include bibliographical references.
Key words: eating disorders, self-esteem, body esteem, women

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Cain, Susan. (2013). Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking.
            Reviewed by: Jazmine Russell, New York University.

Susan Cain admits herself to be an introvert ‘in a world that can’t stop talking.’ Like many of us, she isn’t fond of working in a busy group setting and shakes with nervousness when asked to give a public speech. Ironically, my first introduction to Susan Cain was in her TED Talk about introversion, the very topic of her book, Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World that Can’t Stop Talking. In this speech, Susan Cain carries herself gracefully, speaks confidently, and doesn’t show a twinge of nervous energy. ‘How did this self-proclaimed introvert do it?’ I thought. This is the very question that lead me to read her book.
            In Quiet, Cain opens the discussion by revealing her personal quest to her readers. Through discussing the topic of introversion with many people of all cultures, fields and walks of life, Cain’s goal was to discover why extroversion was typically favored, what shapes these personality types in the first place, and what introverts really can and do contribute to our society that extroverts may not. From participating in a Tony Robbins seminar on ‘unleashing the power within’ to speaking with developmental scientist, Jerome Kagan about temperament and personality, Cain discovers an array of findings and shares them with her readers in a concise and clear manner.
            One may assume, with Cain’s confession of her own personality type, that the book would be rather one-sided. However, while she makes a very strong argument, Cain also discusses the importance of both introversion and extroversion. What she fights against, rather, is what seems to be the current trend of the ‘extrovert ideal,’ meaning the cultural and societal push to be outgoing, sociable, and charming in all aspects of life. Partly a product of genetics, and part consumerism, Cain argues that too much of a push towards extroversion and what she calls ‘The New Groupthink’ can hinder people from utilizing their own talents in the way that is more comfortable and pragmatic for them. In schools and business, for example, when people are forced to brainstorm or collaborate constantly, pushed into ‘team building’ exercises, it actually reduces productivity and creation. However, when people are given the space to go work on their own while maintaining communication and the opportunity to collaborate, everyone’s personality and work ethic is accounted for and supported.
            Cain also shows readers that some of the most important events in history and many of the most important inventions in history came from introverted people. Rosa Parks, Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Steven Spielberg, Larry Page, and Stephen Wozniak, to name a few, all contributed greatly to society but also typically preferred to work alone and think deeply before initiating projects. In fact, Cain reveals that having a more quiet personality listening intently, taking suggestions, and thinking before acting, can actually make you a more effective leader than those who may prefer to act quickly, speak more often than listen, and push one’s own ideas above the group.
            Though her book is about personality, as she does speak of this topic in light of previous research, Cain is mostly referring to cultural ideals. Knowing that people are far more complex than a single term ‘introvert’ or ‘extrovert, She unpacks for us the stereotypes we most likely hold for the sociable, loud, assertive and gregarious type as compared to the shy, imaginative, quiet, sensitive type. This is to show us, not only that these stereotypes may be misguided, but how much we can learn and grow from nurturing both personality types in business, in school, and at home. Above all, Cain’s message is to perhaps push yourself outside of your comfort zone if it’s for something you love, as she did, but mostly to situate yourself in the environment you feel comfortable in and surrounded by the people you feel comfortable with. Quiet, an elegantly written book, is packed with information for the business person, parent, teacher, therapist, along with both introverts and extroverts alike.

Cain, Susan. (2013). Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking.
New York: Broadway Books
Paperback: 352 pages.
IBSN: 978-0-307-35215-6.
Includes index.
Key Words: Personality, Introversion, Culture, Temperament

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Castonguay, Louis G. & Hill, Clara E. (2012). Transformation in Psychotherapy: Corrective Experiences Across Cognitive Behavioral, Humanistic, and Psychodynamic Approaches.
            Reviewed by: Nataliya Rubinchik, Hunter College

Corrective experiences occur when a patient ‘comes to understand or experience affectively an event or relationship in a different and unexpected way.’ This book was put together based on a series of conferences at Penn State University. The editors’ goal for putting this book together was to explain how different approaches affect corrective experiences and understand the change in a theoretical, empirical, and clinical ways.
            Transformation in Psychotherapy: Corrective Experiences Across Cognitive Behavioral, Humanistic, and Psychodynamic Approaches is divided into three sections. The first section defines corrective experiences and provides background conceptual information about it. The second section presents empirical studies and investigations regarding corrective experiences. Both the first and the second section use clinical material to explain the idea behind incorporating corrective experiences in therapy sessions and a guide for how to do so. The third section summarizes the previous two to tie the background of corrective experiences to current uses of it.
            Corrective experiences are often used in teaching a client that something they are afraid of doing or feeling is not as scary as they think. The goal is to teach clients how to deal with their fears and anxieties. By combining cognitive and behavioral methods into an emotion-centered technique, therapists work with clients to open new doors of opportunity.
            Every chapter is written by a different author, highlighting his or her research and allowing the author(s) to explain what he or she knows best. For example, Dr Marvin Goldfried explains the concept of corrective experience as the client’s ability to interact with the therapist and with the therapy in a way that produces therapeutic change without having to specifically resolve earlier conflicts.
            Chapters are also separated based on the approach in the first section to give the reader necessary background information from all possible approaches. The second section begins to talk about empirical data, and incorporates all the information relayed in the first section. Readers are able to follow the research presented in all cases from having been introduced to different techniques and approaches in the beginning.
            This book was put together as a tool for both students interested in learning about clinical psychology and for experienced clinicians wishing to learn how to better incorporate corrective experiences into their work. Research and case studies are presented in this book to give explanations and greater understanding for readers of all levels. Much of the empirical research focuses on portraying the clients’ perspectives of corrective experiences. Different examples are provided of how clients change their behaviors and how they understand the transformations they go through.
            The third section of the book summarizes conclusions made by all the authors who worked to put together the book. Readers are reminded that every clinician has his or her own definition of corrective experiences. Therefore the authors of final chapter decided to break corrective experiences into two types. This division of corrective experience focuses on both kinds of changes that can occur in a client, conscious and unconscious. Type 1 are "new or unexpected thoughts, emotions, sensations, behaviors or feelings about one’s self that result from the client encountering an event that is different from his or her frame of reference." In Type 2 corrective experiences, "the client actively does something different in situations that typically have triggered apprehension and negative emotion."

Castonguay, Louis G. & Hill, Clara E. (2012). Transformation in Psychotherapy: Corrective Experiences Across Cognitive Behavioral, Humanistic, and Psychodynamic Approaches.
American Psychological Association: Washington, DC
ISBN: 978-1-4338-1159-3.
Paperback: 390 pages.
Includes bibliographical references.
Key words: corrective experiences, cognitive behavioral approach, emotional approach, psychotherapy

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Deida, D. (1997). The Way of the Superior Man: A Spiritual Guide to Mastering the Challenges of Women, Work, and Sexual Desire.
Deida, D. (2005). Dear Lover: A Woman’s Guide to Men, Sex, and Love’s Deepest Bliss.
            Both reviewed by: Nataliya Rubinchik, Hunter College

David Deida has written several books for men and women who want a fuller romantic life or who struggle with their current one. While all of his books could be read by both genders, each is written with one or the other as the expected audience. This allows the other gender to better understand the thoughts of the gender the book is written for. Deida’s books are also useful for psychotherapists wishing to advise their clients on how to better their intimate relationships.
            "Stop waiting. Feel everything. Love achingly. Give impeccably. Let go." Deida’s guide for the ‘superior man’ is not only meant for a heterosexual man with a masculine essence. It can also be relevant for homosexual men or women with a masculine essence or for a heterosexual woman with a masculine essence.
            A masculine essence is the desire from the very core to become successful and liberated from all inner and outer conflicts. A feminine essence is the desire for love and romance above all else. Deida believes that every individual has an essence. Usually men have a more masculine essence and women have a more feminine one, but that is not always the case. For a successful relationship, it must first be understood who in the couple has a more masculine essence and who a more feminine one. A relationship where the essences balance out would be considered the most successful because the couple is complementing one another and allowing room to grow.
            Even if something causes immense pain inside, Deida insists that a superior man would be able to deal with the hurt and turn it back into love: open his body and his heart and allow breath and spirituality to enter and cleanse the negativity and turn feelings into truly open love. Freeing oneself - as is the deepest desire for a masculine essence - from sadness, anger and fear - allows for the betterment of life. When it comes to a career, for example, it is better to accept fear and live alongside it, taking it into account when making major decisions, than to ignore it and pretend that everything is as it is meant to be.
            The same rules apply to women and relationships, in Deida’s perspective. Fear of the unknown and doubt in oneself is always seen by a woman’s acute eye. If she senses an inner conflict in her man, she might be wary of his behaviors, causing their relationship to not be able to blossom to its full potential. Fear stops the growth of anything, therefore acknowledging fear and accepting it, pushing just beyond the boundary is what allows self-development. ‘Both forms of intercourse, sexual and worldly, require sensitivity, spontaneity, and a strong connection to deep truth in order to penetrate chaos and closure in a way that love prevails.
            Deida’s advice for the superior man sounds initially like criticism. He begins each chapter with a challenge. Sometimes the phrasing of his sentences sounds offensive in order to get a reaction from the reader, only to teach a lesson at the end. Sometimes Deida offers an exercise to the reader to allow him to learn more about himself. The purpose of all these challenges is to explain to the reader the differences that come about from making a specific decision.
            It is all about priority and purpose, but at the same time, it is about giving your all in every aspect of life. Deida’s purpose is to share his observations with the reader on how to be the best man one can be through ridding oneself of fear and instead opening oneself to new experiences. This in turn will improve all of the reader’s relationships: familial, romantic, and worldly.
            "Dear lover", begins David Deida’s book to guide women to what he believes is a deeper and truer experience in love. Written in the second person, Dear Lover takes its reader on an adventure. Every chapter begins with a short letter from a lover explaining just how much his woman means to him. Through these letters, Deida expresses to his readers what a man should feel when he is with a woman. A woman should not settle for any less than the purest of emotion.
            For Deida, open love can only be achieved through surrender of all defenses and all predisposed caution. It’s a hard task but being free of the burden of worry and fear allows a woman to love to the fullest - not just her man, but herself. When a woman allows herself to be loved, she has more confidence, everything about her seems to soften and glow. Deida says that it is this light that comes from deep in her heart, from being filled with love, that shows a woman’s spiritual sexiness.
            Opening her heart and allowing a man into the deepest parts of herself create a bridge between complete emotional happiness and pure bodily pleasure. This experience can be either sexual or not. Pleasure can come from being happy in life, doing favorite activities, or just opening oneself to experiences and scenery that are usually lost in the background.
            It is not easy to surrender all defenses that are around the heart, especially if they have been building up over many years of betrayal and heartache. Deida understands this and so his mission is to show every woman that she can be loved the way she wants. That men desire the same love that a woman does, and as long as she allows a man in, they can rewrite the years of pain into love and happiness.
            Both men and women base their life decisions on fear û fear of the unknown, fear of rejection, fear of commitment. But letting go of fear is what allows every individual to blossom to his or her full potential. This is why Deida makes it clear that choosing life’s path must be done with an open and fearless heart.
            Deida explains how an individual can identify his or her own essence and what it means to have more of one. One’s childhood can create an abundance of one essence over the other depending on parents, experiences, and interests. A successful relationship would only come from a balance of both essences between the man and the women, like puzzle pieces completing a picture.
            The advice Deida gives is not only useful in having a successful relationship. It also allows for personal growth and finding happiness in every day. Giving yourself into love can improve romantic relationship as well as friendships and family matters. It clears the mind and body to see beauty in all surroundings.
            The Way of the Superior Man and Dear Lover are a great read for both men and women, even though reactions will be different depending on the background of the individual. Both books capture the reader from the beginning and allow him or her the chance to view the world from someone else’s eyes. They create a bridge between men and women, one that would allow both genders to understand the thoughts and actions of the opposite gender. Both books guide the reader to begin opening him or herself up to the unknown by offering support and understanding, while also pushing the boundary just a little bit.
            Deida’s writing flows easily, captivating the reader. While each guide is written primarily for one gender, every individual reader would benefit from reading Deida’s guides. Second person point of view allows the reader to jump into the books and feel like what Deida writes about is directly for him or her. Deida’s writing feels personal, as if every word he writes is meant ‘for your eyes only.

Deida, D. (1997). The Way of the Superior Man: A Spiritual Guide to Mastering the Challenges of Women, Work, and Sexual Desire.
Boulder, CO: Sounds True, Inc.
ISBN: 978-1-59179-257-4.
Paperback: 195 pages.
List of Resources at the end of the book
Keywords: career, sex, relationships, women, men’s guide

Deida, D. (2005). Dear Lover: A Woman’s Guide to Men, Sex, and Love’s Deepest Bliss.
Boulder, CO: Sounds True, Inc.
ISBN: 978-1-59179-260-4.
Paperback: 176 pages.
List of Resources at the end of the book
Keywords: love, sex, relationships, woman’s guide

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Denborough, David (2014). Retelling the Stories of Our Lives: Everyday Narrative Therapy to Draw Inspiration and Transform Experience.
            Reviewed by: Nataliya Rubinchik, Hunter College

Too often we let our experiences and circumstances define us rather than making them just a small part of what makes us who we are. David Denborough wrote Retelling the Stories of Our Lives: Everyday Narrative Therapy to Draw Inspiration and Transformation Experience as a way for readers to look back at trauma and injustice they have experienced in their lives and learn to see it in a different light. By including questions, exercises, and new ideas, Denborough provides readers with an opportunity to rewrite the meaning of their story.
            Denborough offers an example from his own life to show how specific events are accompanied by a feeling of pity and depression while a more detailed scenario can give depth and understanding to these same events. A young boy with asthma, who could not speak understandably until 4, alone on a mountain ridge paints a lonely image in our minds. We learn that his father loved his son and felt like he was on top of the world, and that his mother could always understand her boy. The young boy never felt alone, and the day he stood by himself at the top of the mountain ridge, this boy wrote his very first song. Now we understand that he was never lonely. Quite the opposite, alone on the mountain this boy felt like ‘a songwriter on top of the world.‘
            Negative events from our lives haunt us and define us unless we choose to rewrite our story. We have to learn to separate the good of who we are from the bad that circumstances outside of our control causes us to become. Denborough includes activities for the reader as well as examples from his cases to clearly show the reader what he or she should be doing.
            Denborough divides his book into steps to help the reader go through a hopefully successful narrative therapy while he or she reads through the book. He begins with identifying who we are and changing our ‘headline’ from the negative that follows us around to something positive about ourselves. It is important to then understand that people are not the problem û the problem is the problem û and externalizing is the first step to overcoming it. It is important to find the right audience who will be supportive of our journey whether it is an imaginary friend, someone we are close with, or just the pages of the book. It is similarly important to decide who is vital to our lives û who are the people that are part of our ‘teamö? Once we have identified all of these parts of our lives, we can begin to put them together into a story of our lives; only when we tell our story this time, it is about who we really are. Only in this way can we overcome the trauma we have let define us for too long.
            Denborough includes a number of case studies and examples of all the different experiences people have gone through and how they used specific exercises from narrative therapy to redefine themselves the way they want to be. At the end of each chapter there is a section that goes over what the reader learned in that chapter. This is a good way to enforce the growth readers should be experiencing as they go through learning to retell the stories of their lives.
            Retelling the Stories of Our Lives: Everyday Narrative Therapy to Draw Inspiration and Transformation Experience is written in an organized and easy-to-follow way which makes it easy for readers who wish to learn to retell their stories to feel comfortable doing the activities. It is written to be a guide for both individuals and larger groups of people who want to work together and help each other through this journey. Denborough gives readers a way to overcome trauma that has held them back for too long and to see themselves in a better light.

Denborough, David (2014). Retelling the Stories of Our Lives: Everyday Narrative Therapy to Draw Inspiration and Transform Experience.
New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
ISBN: 978-0-393-70815-8
Paperback: 310 pages.
Includes bibliographical references and index
Key words: narrative therapy, trauma, guide

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Dweck, Carol. S. (2006). Mindset: The New Psychology of Success.
            Reviewed by: Jazmine Russell, New York University.

As a lone researcher, it is a difficult task to be able to take your array of findings and create a valuable theoretical framework to help others understand the complexities of their mindset and thoughts. It is an entirely different feat to guide the lay person through your theory and reveal to them exactly the different ways these findings can affect and change their lives. Within the topic of motivation, beliefs, and mindsets, this seems incredibly daunting, as one can imagine the variety of reasons for why people may believe and act the way they do. However, for Carol Dweck, this is a welcomed challenge, because Dweck now has a ‘growth mindset,’ the very thing she endorses in her book, Mindset: The New Psychology of Success.
            The concept of the ‘growth mindset’ began with Dweck’s interest in how people cope with failure and solve tough problems. In her work with school children, she began to notice that some displayed high levels of eagerness when faced with a challenge, while others displayed helplessness. These eager children were the same ones who understood and believed that qualities such as intelligence and personality were traits one could develop throughout life; that they are not inborn or fixed qualities. Therefore, they were motivated to try harder and build their skills and knowledge as a result of this mindset. The ‘growth mindset’, as Dweck calls it, is important to how much effort people put into school, their career, and even their relationships, how much passion they have for learning, and how much they may thrive when faced with many different kinds of challenges.
            Dweck asks us to consider how we may handle potential shortcomings and challenges in all areas of life, for the ‘growth mindset’ also changes the very meaning of failure for individuals. For example, Dweck describes the child who believes their intelligence is a fixed trait they are stuck with in life. This is the child who may always be “in danger of being measured by failure” as “it can define them in a permanent way” (p. 39). One failure at a task might represent to the child their basic inability to complete the task, and thinking their traits are fixed, it furthermore represents their inability to become capable. However, if a child believes these traits can change with effort and growth,  “failures may still hurt, but failures don’t define them” (p. 39). The title ‘The New Psychology of Success’ implies that with a ‘growth mindset’, success becomes possible because it simply becomes fathomable to those who believe that change is possible and effort pays. <
            Though Dweck, of course, emphasizes the positive outcomes of the ‘growth mindset’, she never comes off as judgmental, but rather, understanding of those readers who may relate to the fixed mindset. She even tells of her own struggles with the mindset and how the research she’s done has personally affected her, making her book all the more enjoyable to read. Relaying her research in a forbearing, rich and enthusiastic way, Dweck even dedicates chapters of the book to advising parents, teachers, and role models in how to cultivate a growth mindset in their children. These findings and information do not just apply to the realm of academic success but also to the world of business and leadership, artistic and athletic talent, or even success in romantic relationships. Dweck’s book is beautifully written, expansive, inspiring, and motivating to readers in the field, therapists, parents, teachers, leaders, and anyone looking to expand their idea of success and growth.

Dweck, Carol. S. (2006). Mindset: The New Psychology of Success.
New York: Random House.
IBSN: 1-4000-6275-6.
Hardcover: 277 pages.
Includes index.
Key Words: Success, Intelligence, Mindset, Relationships, Personality

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Firestone, R., Firestone, L., Catlett, J. (2013). The Self Under Siege: A Therapeutic Model for Differentiation
            Reviewed by: Joshua D. Wright, Hunter College of The City University of New York

In The Self Under Siege: A Therapeutic Model for Differentiation, Firestone and colleagues express the existential view that individuals must differentiate their identity from those around them, and maintain an inclusive world-view. The problem, according to Firestone et al., is that destructive thought processes thwart this goal. This text outlines a useful approach to uncovering these destructive processes in order to differentiate one’s identity and fulfill the underlying need for a unique self. Relying on philosophy, this book is dense and best suited for the academically minded, and specifically for practitioners with a bent for psychoanalytic theory.
            The model of differentiation outlined by Firestone et al. relies on the assumption that in order to lead a successful, individual, and creative life, a person must differentiate oneself from others. This involves avoiding the incorporation of others’ attitudes and personal attacks on one’s developing personality, while focusing on one’s unique identity. The model posits a dichotomous construct of the self and anti-self, in which only one may be activated and it is in the best interest of people to "emancipate themselves from imagined connections with parents, to unlearn destructive aspects of early programming, and to learn to embrace more life-affirming ways of satisfying needs and pursuing goals" (p. 6).
            After developing parents as the first and foremost environment in a child’s life, Firestone et al. outline the construct he calls ‘the voice’, an inner stream of consciousness from the perspective of the parents or others, in which a negative opinion reigns. The solution to eliminating this negative voice, according to Firestone et al., is voice therapy. This method is outlined in detail, describing the use of dialogue in the second person as the primary means for patients to come to terms with their negative internalizations. In this manner, patients engage in dialogue between the self and the anti-self, allowing for differentiation between the attitudes and thoughts associated with the two ends of this dichotomy. Five steps in this process are outlined and numerous examples from clinical sessions are used to demonstrate this process. Thus the reader is able to follow multiple individuals through the process, laid out in an easy to follow dialogue format.
            Chapters 5 and 6 extend voice therapy to the context of couples and sexual relationships, elaborating on how this process can be adapted using dialogue with the significant other in real-time and from the second person perspective in turn-taking style. Again, this process is illuminated via a case history. The underlying problem for Firestone et al. is always oriented in childhood with negative experiences between child and parents taking the pivotal position. Chapters 7 and 8 detail the authors’ theoretical perspective on how various types of relationships between mothers and sons, mothers and daughters, fathers and sons, and fathers and daughters are seen to affect the ability of a person to differentiate his or her identity.
            Of course, no book on psychotherapy could be complete without alluding to Freud’s death instinct. Firestone et al. state, “The enemy of differentiation is awareness of death” (p. 24). Chapter 9 explains how mortality salience leads to automatic defense mechanisms, which ultimately inhibit the ability to develop towards individuation and autonomy. The core conflict within development is the “choice between contending with emotional pain or defending against it” (p. 135) and denial leads to “loss of personal identity, freedom, and autonomy” (p. 135) and it is necessary to rely on less defense mechanisms in order to promote differentiation, spurring greater creativity, and making “us more compassionate toward the rest of humankind who share our fate” (p. 149).
            Chapter 10 extends this thesis to the larger society. In an effort to try to understand groups, intergroup conflict, prejudice, and racism, Firestone et al. rely on the argument that “Granting preeminence to the individual rather than to the state or any of its institutions is logical as well as ethical because systems are merely abstractions, whereas people are living entities” (p. 156). Ultimately, society’s projection of negative group characteristics onto other groups is equivalent to this same process in individuals and it stems from the individual level where people are not properly differentiating themselves and becoming unique, free, and creative individuals. The Self Under Siege concludes with the conception that empowerment of individuals is the kindling for larger social change, removing negative aspects of society by focusing efforts inward to self-awareness reminiscent of Maslow’s self-actualizationùa book of grounded theory for psychotherapists and existential enlightenment for the academically minded reader trying to understand something deep in the heart of humanity.

Firestone, R., Firestone, L., Catlett, J. (2013). The Self Under Siege: A Therapeutic Model for Differentiation.
New York: Routledge.
ISBN: 9780415520331
Hardcover: 272 pages.
Notes and index included
Keywords: Self, self-concept, identity, voice therapy, differentiation

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Grawe, K. (2004). Psychological Therapy.

            Reviewed by: Dorothy Luczak, Columbia University

Within the text of Psychological Therapy, Dr. Klaus Grawe creates a detailed hypothetical discussion between a practicing therapist, a research psychologist and a therapy researcher. This imagined conversation is how Grawe chooses to depict his ideas on the use of psychologically based procedures to promote healing, instead of ‘a healing that occurs via mental means,’ used in psychotherapy. While this is certainly a creative approach in presenting the subject, this text is concerned mainly with accessibility and practicality. While his formation of the text is literary in conceptualization, this book is, first and foremost, a scientific and research-heavy work.
            Psychological Therapy is divided into three main sections, or, as Grawe’s translation calls them, dialogues. The first is focused on how psychotherapy achieves its effects, the second with the foundations of psychological therapy, and the third, the most practical of the three, provides a model for psychological therapy. With these sections, Grawe attempts to bridge the gap between psychology and psychotherapy using the voices of his characters. Each character also leads one section, so that the therapy researcher leads the first, the research psychologist follows, and the practicing therapist ends the discussion. By creating this scene, the reader is given a more approachable means at understanding a great deal of facts and figures.
            That is not to say that this text isn’t dealing with data and research. In fact, there are numerous graphs, images, and outside resources for anyone who desires to investigate deeper. Grawe states that for the second section alone, ‘I reviewed over 500 publications from different areas of psychology and neurobiology.’ So that while the construction is similar to that of a literary piece, this is still a very scientific work. However, the reading is still very dense and requires a steady focus on the material. Psychological Therapy demands a serious reader with time and patience to piece apart its meaning.
            The third section, titled ‘A Psychological Model of Therapy,’ provides the practicality of the psychologically based procedures. Here Grawe outlines how psychotherapy works, its efficiency, its inconsistencies and how to apply the framework to various therapies. He then proceeds to build upon the idea of psychological therapy in practice. In the second part of Section Three, one of Grawe’s characters presents the reader with an intake assessment sheet, the intake assessment procedure, and many other practical tools for a practicing therapist. Using the voice of his hypothetical practicing therapist, not only does Grawe relates to practicing therapists who may be interested in incorporating psychological ideas into their practice, but voices some possible concerns with the process.
            This text is recommended for two specific audiences that the author speaks to specifically. The first audience Grawe that names in his preface are, ‘colleagues of many different nationalities,’ since the book was first written in German. So that those who have heard references of Psychological Therapy, may now read the text itself. áThe second audience that Grawe mentions would be therapists who have completed their degrees several years ago. It is this audience that can gain the most from the second section titled ‘Foundations of Psychological Therapy.’ However, anyone with an interest in using psychologically based procedures in therapy will find a wealth of information in Psychological Therapy, and a growing readership may develop in English reading countries like the original German edition did.

Grawe, K. (2004). Psychological Therapy. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
ISBN: 0-88937-217-9.
Hardcover: 639 pp.
Includes bibliographical references, author index and subject index.
Key words: psychology, therapy, psychological therapy, psychotherapy, practice, therapeutic relationship

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Grawe, K. (2007). Neuropsychotherapy: How the Neurosciences Inform Effective Psychotherapy.
            Reviewed by: Dorothy Luczak, Columbia University

In Neuropsychotherapy: How the Neurosciences Inform Effective Psychotherapy, Dr. Klaus Grawe makes a case for the use of neuroscientific findings in effective psychotherapy. He asserts that these findings should not be taken as a replacement for psychotherapy but as an approach to increase efficiency. As a psychotherapist with a growing interest in neuroscience, Grawe’s perspective acts as a bridge for these two fields, and does so with an explanation of the term ‘neuropsychotherapy.’ While a complex process, it essentially is the idea of drawing upon neuroscientific research to inform psychotherapeutic techniques. Grawe proceeds to educate the reader in a crash course on neuroscience and parses its jargon. He provides graphs, figures and various empirical studies to support his claim and suggests implications for psychotherapy. Grawe believes that the neurosciences can maximize the effectiveness of psychotherapy and lead to a positive outcome in clinical practice. 
            Neuropsychotherapy was published posthumously in 2007, just as neuroscience was beginning to contribute to psychotherapy. Looking back, his ideas were indeed innovative for the time, and helped shape the approach that psychotherapy has in regards to neuroscience today. His fervor for the subject is apparent in the text and in the forwards where peers remark on Grawe’s desire to disseminate his work, especially into an English translation. This desire to communicate to practitioners, researchers and students across the globe is the driving motivation for Neuropsychotherapy’s creation. His first book, Psychological Therapy, is referred to as a ‘shift in emphasis,’ where the focus is rooted in psychology while Neuropsychotherapy is rooted in neuroscience. They are paired as ‘complementary attempts to provide a theoretical foundation for a ‘generic psychotherapy,’’ and while Neuropsychotherapy is accessible as a stand alone work, Psychological Therapy might provide a smoother transition into Grawe’s ideas. 
            The wealth of information Grawe presents is staggering, not only in terms of visual aids but also in terms of references. In his preface, Grawe states that the data used to fuel this text was collected in only half a year of self study and research. His main concern, however, is to assist with clinical practice, and that is addressed in his fifth chapter ‘Implications for Psychotherapy.’ There Grawe spells out concrete guidelines for using all the information the reader has gleaned from the previous four chapters and how to apply it to practice. He divides this into two sets of guidelines, the first for therapy planning and the second for therapy process. The first set of guidelines is a brief list of ten steps for leading to a treatment plan. These ten steps are analytical and explicitly organized. The second set is also a list of twelve steps that guide what the practitioner should be considering while attempting to process the session in relation to neuroscientific research. These steps are lengthier and more descriptive in style. These guidelines will be of interest to currently practicing therapists. 
            Neuropsychotherapy is a helpful tool for therapists attempting to understand the purpose and perspective that neuroscience provides. There is also merit in using Grawe’s work as a supplement to a student’s coursework in psychology and neuroscience. The text sits at a critical point in time and it is a contribution to the merging of these two fields. By incorporating these two subjects in a detailed, organized and easy to read book filled with visual aids, empirical studies, anecdotes, and guidelines Grawe’s effectively portrays the deeper connection between neuroscience and psychotherapy and the value of that connection. 

Grawe, K. (2007). Neuropsychotherapy: How the Neurosciences Inform Effective Psychotherapy. 
New York: Psychology Press, Taylor & Francis Group. 
ISBN: 9780805861228 
Paperback: 476 pp. 
Includes bibliographical references, author index, and subject index. 
Key words: neuropsychotherapy, neuroscience, psychotherapy, psychology, therapy practice

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Herman, Aimee (2011). The Body Electric.
            Reviewed by: Nataliya Rubinchik, Hunter College

"If anything is sacred the human body is sacred" wrote Walt Whitman in his poem, The Body Electric. Everything is connected "our body, our mind, the sea, the wind". Interconnectedness exists within us as humans and between us as beings of this planet. This book, edited by Aimee Herman, puts together a collection of photographs, stories and poems that depict the connection between being and feeling and entwining with everything around us. Most of the contributors to this book are writers and poets and photographers, however a civil engineer, a basketball point-guard, and a man who works for technical support, also contributed to this beautiful book.
            Most photographs in this book are those of the naked body. Alone or with another, these images show the most intimate side of humanity in a beautiful manner. The photographs are all grayscale, which creates an aura of intrigue, intimacy, and mystery in every photograph. Some photographs are connected to the story or the poem they are placed next to and leave an image in our mind for when we begin to read. Others are there for beauty and to provoke thought.
            Salita S. Bryant is a professor of English, who has a degree in literature, clinical counseling and poetry. Her poem, Anatomy Lesson: A Poem, was originally published in the International Body Psychotherapy Journal and then included in The Body Electric. This poem ‘reviews’ parts of our anatomy by comparing humans to animals to which we are similar made. Our fingerprints are similar to that of Koala bears, our burley bone is like a dove’s wing, yet humans are the only species in the world that can weep. Bryant poetically describes who we are as humans and what we are capable of by explaining of what we are made up.
            Bryant has a way of making the reader feel very small and alone, but at the same time very strong and typical. We are all alike, humans and animals, and we are never alone. It is this ability to make us all relatable that shows Bryant’s talents. Her knowledge of who we are as humans and her mastery over words add together to make a beautiful poem.
            This book is full of short stories and poems that depict the beauty and intimacy of being human. As the reader goes through each piece, deep emotions are awakened and there is a sense of understanding and belonging and being aware of every part of oneself. Inspired by Walt Whitman, this collection of photographs, stories, and poems "provides a contemporary examination of the body".

Herman, Aimee (2011). The Body Electric.
New York: Ars Omnia Press.
ISBN: 978-1484977996.
Paperback: 174 pages.
Does not include bibliographical references.
Key words: body, photographs, fiction, poetry

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Lehmann, E. (2012). Resilient-You: Bending With Strong Winds
Reviewed by: Tina R. Lee

Elizabeth Lehmann’s audio CD program Resilient-You introduces a simple approach to regulating stress. A seasoned psychotherapist, Lehmann takes the listener through eight physical calming techniques that can be utilized anywhere and at any time. The techniques mainly focus on breathing and greater awareness of the body. Lehmann names each technique, such as the first called ‘Wanna hold your hand,’ making it fun and easy to remember.
            In ‘Wanna hold your hand’ (a takeoff on the Beatles), the listener allows his/her dominant hand to hold the non-dominant hand. Lehmann describes that the non-dominant hand is the place where we feel more vulnerable. As the listener holds, he/she takes note of the changes that are happening with the body such as slower breath or a shift in posture. Lehmann tells listeners to welcome everything that comes even if there are no changes. The goal is to actively work with the nervous system to bring the body to a state of natural equilibrium. Other techniques introduced in the CD include: (1) ‘Every breath you take’ - breath into the nose deeply into the stomach and slowly out through the mouth; (2) ‘Embrace-able you’ - cross arms over chest and hug yourself for one or two minutes; (3) ‘Rock steady’ - hold onto a chair/table and connect with the solidity for one or two minutes; (4) ‘Grounding yourself’ - a slower and longer experience, in which you are firmly planted like a tree; (5) ‘Walking on sunshine’ - you stand on your feet, walk around and notice the contact of each foot with the ground; (6) ‘Feel of your touch’ - one hand is on the chest and area above the stomach while you imagine a golden light or supporting hand to center yourself; (7) ‘Vocal toning’ - chant the word ‘voom’ several times letting the sound start in the belly and rising upwards to the mouth.
            Some of the techniques are short and active while others are meditative. Lehmann advises listeners to repeat the steps as much as they want. According to Lehmann, the calming techniques prompt the nervous system to restore a‘resilient-you.’ The theory is based on the assumption that all individuals have inner and outer resources, which can be effectively tapped into. Lehmann states that people have an inner wisdom that knows exactly what is needed; individuals only have to allow themselves to spontaneously and internally change. However, Lehmann notes that not everyone has the same response and that what works effectively for one individual may not be so effective for another. To that end, Lehmann encourages listeners to experiment with all the techniques and find the ones right for them.
            The audio CD has a soothing tone throughout the program with Lehmann guiding the listener throughout. She exhibits the necessary flexibility for the listeners to adjust to each new approach. Yet, she never pressures the listener to use any technique, even encouraging acceptance of no changes. The section topics are well-organized and easy to follow, starting with informative facts about the nervous system and ending with proven-resilience guided experiences. The program can complement any approach to personal growth and/or development. However, listeners cannot practice the techniques while driving, etc. as it involves full attention. According to Lehmann, mindfulness is simply resting in a gentle awareness of thoughts, feelings, perceptions and/or body sensations as they occur. The program puts these ideas into action and shows its effectiveness even within moments of trying the first calming technique.
            In particular, there is an interesting section called ‘Experiencing gratitude’, where Lehmann tells listeners to ask themselves, "For what, in this very moment, are you grateful?" Once listeners have thought of it, they should allow themselves to connect more with the gratitude. Elizabeth calls it the ‘experience of gratitude.’ This part has a spiritual theme underlying it, and it illustrates how extensive and holistic the program is.
            Lehmann goes on to describe resourcing, which can be a pleasing memory, person, place, action or personal quality that calms you. It unconsciously happens all the time, according to Lehmann. Identifying and consciously working with your resources, as well as developing new ones, helps you feel more fully centered and alive. Inner resources tend to be personal qualities we have û inner strengths that help us self-regulate. For example, your imagination and creativity could be an inner resource while humor can also be a resource. On the other hand, outer resources can be subjective, in that it can be whatever is soothing to you such as a creative endeavor or an emotional support group. Lehmann even states that the right kind of healthcare such as vitamins may help. There are unlimited possibilities of resources. Resources may even change over time, which is why it’s important to have a diverse repertoire of resources to turn to when needed.
Resilient-You puts into practice common-sense ideas of mindfulness and body psychotherapy. Just the simple awareness of your feet on the ground can shift your perspective to a more holistic and centered one. Although Lehmann assures listeners that it’s fine if there are no effects, even skeptics would have a difficult time to not feel any changes for any one of the techniques presented. The audio is also a quick and easy listen, broken down into sections for listeners to go back to. The program proves to be an invaluable guide for those new to mindfulness or even for those who are experienced and wish to supplement their collection with an in-depth resource.

Lehmann, E. (2012). Resilient-You: Bending With Strong Winds.
[Audio CD] CD Baby.
Also available as an MP3 download.

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Marks-Tarlow, Terry (2008). Psyche’s Veil.
             Reviewed by: Nataliya Rubinchik, Hunter College

This nonlinear concept is based on chaos theory, complexity theory, and fractal geometry. Chaos theory revolves around unpredictability and disorder, exemplified by the ‘Butterfly Effect.’ Complexity theory studies the effects of one behavior on another and how that might result in self-organization. Fractal geometry is a set of instructions that is used to find the never-ending self-similar patterns that eventually begin to resemble chaos. The three ideas relate to each other almost paradoxically, which brings us back to Marks-Tarlow. She believes that at our core, every person has a fractal structure, a self-similar pattern that boxes us in and defines us.
            Her way of viewing the world of psychology revolves around interactions on both a conscious and subconscious level among the self, the world, and others. She identifies psychological complexity as coming from self-self relations, self-others relations, and self-world relations. Fractal thinking on a therapist’s part might allow him or her to see the bigger issue in interactions and relations he or she sees. One has to start small and allow the bigger picture to present itself as the pattern is found. This pattern is replicated over and over and is seen in behavior and personality. Once the therapist has found it, he or she can trace it back to the beginning.
            Each chapter focuses on one specific aspect of nonlinear psychotherapy and its complexities. Marks-Tarlow includes a number of case studies to illustrate her points, explaining how each concept of nonlinearity applies to the patient and that individual case. She first tells the story of the patient and then discusses each element to explain its importance in the case and for treatment. Marks-Tarlow makes a point of reminding the reader, first and foremost, that the only thing that is certain is uncertainty. This is what allows a clear mind going into every individual case and it is what keeps the mind constantly at work to understand what is happening in each specific case.
            Marks-Tarlow cites background research to support her ideas. If the information she uses requires further explanation, she condenses it into a small box labeled ‘Science box.’ The Science box gives further background and explanation, including relating it to what she’s talking about. This keeps her writing very clear and straightforward as well as giving the book an organized look. She also includes numerous pictures, graphs and figures as explanations and as a way to illustrate her concepts to readers in an understandable way.
            Psyche’s Veil can be understood by professionals in psychology as well as by a more general reader. However, without some prior knowledge, it may seem complicated at first and will take some effort to understand all the concepts. The definitions, explanations and figures that Marks-Tarlow includes help readers along the way. The book as a whole gives off a feeling of being academic. This in turns makes it seem appropriate for a both clinicians and academic readers.
            Having a clear outline presented to the reader keeps the book organized and understandable. Every case study adds personality and explanation to theories and ideas, allowing the reader to follow the concepts. Marks-Tarlow shares her experiences with readers to give us the opportunity to view psychotherapy in a different light that perhaps would be more successful in treatment. Even the darkest and most chaotic of stories has the possibility to end with self-growth and organization.

Marks-Tarlow, Terry (2008). Psyche’s Veil.
East Sussex: Routledge.
ISBN: 978-0-415-45545-9.
Paperback: 343 pages
Includes bibliographical references and index
Key words: psychotherapy, chaos, nonlinear approach, fractals

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Marks-Tarlow, T. (2012). Mirrors of the Mind: The Psychotherapist as Artist.
            Reviewed by: Tina R. Lee, New York University

To the outside world, psychotherapists are seen as the archetypal tabula rasa, the blank slate that interprets the inner worlds of others while sharing little of their own inner workings. Yet a collection of artworks, curated by Terry Marks-Tarlow and produced by the Los Angeles County Psychological Association (LACPA), illustrates how this assumption of the therapist cannot be further from the truth. The collection, titled Mirrors of the Mind: The Psychotherapist as Artist, displays beautiful artworks by therapists within various fields.
            After putting out the call for artists and performers, there was a huge response from the Los Angeles county psychotherapists. The venue consisted of an art gallery, theater performance and lectures. The art exhibition gave psychotherapists the opportunity to display their core values through a myriad of paintings, photographs, drawings, sculptures, videos, and performances.
            Artworks are spread throughout the book alongside photos of the artists, descriptions of the work as well as the artists’ backgrounds. The theme of this collection lies in the belief that just as the artist takes the interior and gives it form and substance so that what was once only known to the artist can now be known by all, the therapist coaches and encourages clients to give form and substance to their own interior experiences.
            Striking pieces include Natalia Boucher’s ‘Follow Me’ which is a photograph on metallic paper depicting two footsteps walking on the beach. It illustrates the relationship of a father and son. Natalia illustrates how they do not need to follow each other’s steps exactly, as long as they are together in the journey to give each other support. A strong believer of the psychological powers of the ocean, Natalia says that it’s a reminder of the fleeting beauty of life, in that the footsteps seem to disappear to make way for something new. Another unique piece is by John LaSalle - a singer, composer, arranger, psychotherapist, and artist. His wife’s oil paint on canvas, ‘Family,’ is accompanied by original song lyrics which discusses his lost youth.
            As one artist puts it: through the process of healing and recovery, the self begins to emerge. It is not a linear process - it is messy and involved but also vital to the survival of the true inner self. In particular, Elisabeth Linn’s ‘The Emergent Self’ speaks to the idea of the true self emerging by breaking through the boxes and constraints we often lock our ‘self’ up in. Mirrors of the Mind is a precious collection of works reminding us to live our most authentic selves through free and artistic expression.

Marks-Tarlow, T. (2012). Mirrors of the Mind: The Psychotherapist as Artist.
Encino, California: LACPA.
ISBN: 978-1-62030-733-5.
Hardback: 101 pages
Key words: art, artists, photography, self, theater, drawing

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Maroda, K.J. (2004). The Power of Counter-transference: Innovations in Analytic Technique.
            Reviewed by: Nataliya Rubinchik, Hunter College

Psychotherapy is a two-way street: as patients lean on their therapists for support, therapists have to freely offer their support back to the patients. The idea of counter-transference is that therapists feel the emotion and truly empathize with their patients as the latter relive highly emotional memories. Dr Karen Maroda, a psychotherapist in private practice, spent her early career building a wall between herself and her patients, never quite showing the true extent of her feelings in response to patients’ experiences. When her patients complained to her or terminated their sessions, explaining that therapy felt cold and emotionless, Dr Maroda realized it was time for a change. She began to incorporate counter-transference in her sessions, against others’ warning, and quickly found what a difference meeting in the middle makes.
            The Power of Counter-transference: Innovations in Analytic Technique teaches readers, both students and experienced clinicians, how to lead a, hopefully, successful psychotherapy session. Dr Maroda begins with advising therapists to set up a working relationship with the patient from the start. She tells the reader that, from her experiences, the best relationship between patient and therapist is one founded on equal ground. Many therapists may be wary of allowing the patient into the therapist’s own life and therefore try to maintain power over them by staying authoritative and cold. Taking away the therapist’s role of being the authority leaves more room for both individuals to actually grow by learning from one another. In addition, when the therapist and the patient are on equal ground, the therapist may feel like he or she can trust in his or her patient, reassuring the patient that he or she can confide in the therapist. This give and take relationship is the first ingredient to a successful therapy.
             One fear therapists have when it comes to counter-transference is that patients with a history of pathological behaviors will try to pass those temptations and behaviors on to their therapist. This makes it difficult for a therapist to relate to the patient. Sometimes it even results in the therapist putting space between him or herself and the patient because of dislike of the patient due to pathological behavior. Therapists tend to divide individual patients into two parts û the understanding patient who is trying to change and the pathological patient, haunting the patient’s other half. This division causes the therapist to battle with him or herself as they may like half of the patient but don’t like the other half.
             Another key part of a successful therapy session is understanding the reason behind patients’ fears. It is rare that patients seek therapy feeling they really do not wish to change. Many individuals actually seek therapy hoping to change too much. This puts the responsibility on the therapist’s shoulders to carefully explain to patients that the goal of therapy is not to change the sort of person one is, but to teach patients to accept who they are and think differently about themselves and their surroundings.
             Dr Maroda guides her readers through these challenges, sharing her experiences and referencing experiences of others. She explains with great detail what kind of feelings the therapist might feel, what he or she should share with the patient, and what the therapy sessions should feel like. She explains how counter-transference would work, how to incorporate it into therapy sessions, and what the issues or consequences of it might be. Through her experiences, Dr Maroda is able to reveal the fine details of what she views as a successful therapy.
             Maroda dedicates a chapter to each important aspect of counter-transference and therapy. She begins with advice for how to create a strong foundation and moves on to the history of counter-transference, its techniques, and its consequences during therapy and after therapy is completed. A clear breakdown of chapters into subsections allows the reader to more easily follow and absorb the information. At the end of each chapter is a subsection summarizing the most important points of that chapter. Dr Maroda’s own experiences allow the reader to feel like they have walked a mile in her shoes by the time they finish reading The Power of Counter-transference: Innovations in Analytic Technique.

Maroda, K.J. (2004). The Power of Counter-transference: Innovations in Analytic Technique.
New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
ISBN: 978-0-88163-414-3.
Paperback: 197 pages.
Bibliographical references included.
Key words: psychotherapy, counter-transference, analytic technique

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McMain, S. & Wiebe, C. (2013) Psychotherapy Essentials To Go: Dialectic Behavior Therapy for Emotion Dysregulation.
             Reviewed by: Nataliya Rubinchik, Hunter College

Psychotherapy Essentials To Go! Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Emotional Dysregulation is one of a six part series, each of which includes a DVD with instructions and examples, the book itself, and a practice reminder card. Each book concentrates on one type of therapy and pushes the reader - both clinician and student - to learn how to successfully conduct that therapy. The editors, Paula Ravitz and Robert Maunder, wrote the introduction to briefly explain why the series was written and to share with the reader the best way to go about learning the therapy. They explain that it’s best to start with the DVD instruction, then read the corresponding text.
             This particular book focuses on Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). DBT requires four modes of therapy to be incorporated: skills training, telephone consultations, individual therapy, and a consultation team. These four therapies put together will hopefully achieve five functions for clients with emotional dysregulation: teaching new skills, generalizing new behaviors, improving motivation, ensuring that the client’s environment encourages change, and supporting therapists. These five functions, if successful, encourage patients to change harmful or abnormal behaviors while accepting who they are at any given moment.
             DBT was created as a mixture of Learning Theory, Zen philosophy, and Dialectical philosophy: tying together the idea of change and the acceptance of the moment. Dr Marsha Linehan first developed this therapy when she noticed that patients, particularly those with Borderline Personality Disorder, would get angry and drop out of therapy after Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Dr Linehan saw that the patients didn’t want to accept change, which is how the idea for a therapy based on acceptance of self, the moment, and future change came to be. At first glance, acceptance and change seem like two opposite poles, but through Dialectical philosophy, Dr Linehan found common ground and a way to incorporate both into one. The push for change and the acceptance that the present moment is perfect the way it is create the delicate balance that is DBT.
             DBT includes 12 different strategies that can either be used alone or together, with one another as well as with other therapies. Shelley McMain and Carmen Wiebe focus on four of these strategies in their book - validation, commitment strategies, behavioral chain analysis, and skills training.
             Validation conveys the understanding of the client’s experiences, building a foundation for trust between clinician and client. Commitment strategies are designed to give clients a feel of safety for them to stay committed to the therapy and the desired change. Behavioral chain analysis is the method of analyzing the problem at hand and breaking down what behaviors led up to it. In this way, both the clinician and the client would be able to think of solutions to that initial negative behavior. First the clinician works with the client to identify the specific problem, then to identify vulnerabilities and prompting events. Next, they work together to identify the links between prompting events and the behavior and can learn to identify the consequences. Teaching skills is just one way to deal with the problem identified through behavioral chain analysis.
             Each of these strategies is dedicated a chapter in the book to relay to the reader the most important points to remember regarding DBT. Through its clear and organized writing, Psychotherapy Essentials To Go: Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Emotional Dysregulation is a great learning experience as it explains through figures and points how to lead a successful therapy. The additional information such as the lesson plan, quiz, reminder card, and DVD only add to the information being offered to the reader. By following the instructions of the editors, readers gain insight and knowledge into how best to incorporate DBT into their work and how best to help clients who require this therapy.

McMain, S. & Wiebe, C. (2013) Psychotherapy Essentials To Go: Dialectic Behavior Therapy for Emotion Dysregulation.
New York, NY: Norton and Co.
ISBN: 978-0-393-70825-7.
Paperback: 135 pages
Includes bibliographical references.
Key words: dialectical behavior therapy, emotional dysregulation, psychotherapy, handbook

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Schmidt, J.S. (2013). Longing for the Blessing: Midrashic Voices from Toldot.
              Reviewed by: Nataliya Rubinchik, Hunter College

Dr Judith Sarah Schmidt, upon turning seventy, decided to take up the challenge of a Midrash. Dr. Schmidt is a psychotherapist in private practice with an eclectic background, who has trained and supervised many cohorts of body psychotherapists, most recently with the Center for Intentional Living.
             A Midrash is an interpretation of the Torah that fills in the gaps an individual might feel exist in order for the individual to understand and connect with religion on a deeper level. Dr Schmidt’s Midrash is on the stories of Isaac, Jacob and his brother Esau, Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah. She wrote her Midrash to sound like a modern story, adding life to characters previously too complicated to even begin to understand. Dr Schmidt begins with Abraham’s attempted sacrifice of his son, from Isaac’s point of view. Through her eyes, we gain more sympathy and understanding for why Abraham was so pushy with Isaac. Perhaps he wanted only for his son to witness his God.
             Dr Schmidt’s Midrash is only one interpretation of millions, so it is not to be taken at face value. It’s true value lies under the words, in the readers’ ability to connect with the stories from the Torah and understand them at a deeper level through one woman’s interpretation of what the characters were really like. She writes in first person point of view to further bring to life ancient characters we all know but might not all understand.
             She explains decisions made by each character, as she thinks they were rationalized, in a way that makes sense to the reader. For example, Jacob’s deception of his father, Isaac, to receive for his blessing is a complicated event. Dr Schmidt, writing from Isaac’s perspective, explains that perhaps he knew he was being lied to by his son, but gave the blessing because this son knew what to do with it. And perhaps Isaac always knew Jacob was destined for greatness, so giving the younger son his blessing was always the right thing to do. It is possible that Rebecca, Isaac’s wife, was not as deceiving as she seemed either, only familiar to the pain of being the younger twin and longing to keep her younger son from experiencing it as well.
             Dr Schmidt allows the reader to see into her own mind as she was working on her Midrash. She tells the readers that the characters would come to her at any moment of the day to personally tell her their story and to explain their actions. Jacob, the son who always appeared to be sly and conniving, may have had holier reasons for deceiving his brother. Esau, the son who gave his all for nothing in return, may have found love and salvation upon leaving home.
             Stories that are taught from childhood to be unquestionable are questioned and beautifully explained by Dr Schmidt. She fills in the gaps that may exists in people’s minds about why Abraham would sacrifice his child, or why Esau would give up his father’s blessing in return for a bowl of lentils. She shares her experiences with these biblical characters and presents them to the reader as more human than we are used to. This makes them more relatable and understandable.
             Dr Schmidt shared a little of her personal ancestry û her great-grandfather, who was attacked by Cossacks that cut off his beard. His inner conflict between his fearful, frozen heart and his need for faith and God. The Rabbi’s family took a chance and moved to America after this attack, beginning anew in the land of opportunity. Dr Schmidt tells readers that when she turned seventy, she took a trip back to her hometown of Boibrke, Poland. The aftermath of World War II left the town with no Jews, desecrated graves, and Polish citizens full of regret for standing by and doing nothing.
             Longing for the Blessing: Midrashic Voices from Toldot gives readers an experience of a lifetime. Explaining religious stories in a different light clears up possible questions and creates a deeper connection between the reader and his or her biblical ancestors. Sharing her private story connects readers to one another, as her pain and loss is universal. Reading Dr Schmidt’s Midrash is a unique experience, which can be appreciated by all people from a religious background.

Schmidt, J.S. (2013). Longing for the Blessing: Midrashic Voices from Toldot.
St. Louis, MO: Time Being Books.
ISBN: 978-1-56809-217-1.
Paperback: 84 pages.
Does not include biographical references.
Key words: Midrash, poetry, Jewish history

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Shaw, Daniel (2014). Traumatic Narcissism: Relational Systems of Subjugation.
             Reviewed by: Nataliya Rubinchik, Hunter College

Dr Daniel Shaw, a clinician in private practice in New York City, has interacted with a variety of narcissistic people, beginning with a religious leader whom he used to follow and most recently with a woman who reached out to him because her parents were both traumatizing narcissists. Such meetings throughout his adult life were the reason he decided to pursue how clinicians would be able to help the victims of traumatizing narcissists.
             Dr Shaw describes the way in which narcissists view the world. They remain consciously ignorant of the fact that they need others’ attentions but they quickly make themselves indispensible in others’ lives, ensuring that their victim will always come back because of dependency. Even though traditionally researchers viewed victims of traumatic narcissists as pathological as well, Dr Shaw’s goal is to show that victims are just that û victims who suffer from depression from their traumatic experiences.
             Dr Shaw focuses on narcissistic parents and the ways in which their adult children might have been affected throughout their life by their parents’ personalities. This leads to his assertion that working with narcissistic people is largely intersubjective. Relationships, both healthy and not healthy, depend on the connection between two people. When it comes to children, it’s very easy to upset their delicate development by not maintaining a good relationship based on understanding and recognition.
             Dr Shaw cites an example of how a child can grow up traumatized if his or her narcissistic parents care more about themselves and leave the child to take care of both him or herself and the parents. The child is left feeling like he or she cannot depend on the parents and grows up full of self-loathing. To avoid these situations, there must be a balance between parents and children, which includes recognition of children’s accomplishments and love and returning it, important factors of which narcissistic parents are not capable. Narcissistic parents justify their inability to show love by blaming the child for being undeserving of it causing the child to try to become someone he or she isn’t. As adults, children of narcissistic children still maintain that need to be loved and continue to try and please everybody, since that is the only way they know to receive recognition.
             Dr Shaw includes case studies to illustrate the idea of intersubjectivity between narcissistic parents and their traumatized children. He clearly explains his theories to the reader in a way that is understandable for experienced clinicians and inexperienced students. The subject of this book, the victims of traumatizing narcissists, has not been widely studied, making Dr Shaw’s book a bridge between past knowledge of children, development, and narcissism and the hope of finding a way to facilitate therapy in the future. Previous theories focused on children of narcissists being narcissistic as well, while Dr Shaw digs deeper to find what makes some children narcissistic and others depressed.
             Dr Shaw does not limit his views only to parents and children. He explains how narcissistic relationships can be created in cults, within a couple, and in a psychoanalyst’s office. Because it is possible to come across narcissistic relationships in many parts of one’s life, particularly if it is a parent or a significant other, Dr Shaw suggests how to not become a victim of traumatic narcissists. He first begins this chapter with subsections on different emotions û hate, forgiveness, and indifference û for an example of how to deal with these emotions as one feels them. Traumatic Narcissism: Relational Systems of Subjugation is meant for both those who are victims of narcissists and for clinicians working with narcissists and victims.

Shaw, Daniel (2014). Traumatic Narcissism: Relational Systems of Subjugation.
New York, NY: Routledge.
ISBN: 978-0-415-51024-0.
Paperback: 167 pages.
Includes bibliographical references
Key words: narcissism, psychotherapy, intersubjectivity

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Tweedy, Roderick (2012). The God of the Left Hemisphere: Blake, Bolte Taylor, and the Myth of Creation.
Reviewed by: Tina R. Lee, New York University

In The God of the Left Hemisphere, Roderick Tweedy explores the remarkable connections between the activities and functions of the human brain that poet William Blake termed ‘Urizen’ (based on the mythology in which the entity Urizen is the embodiment of conventional law and reason), and the powerful complex of sequencing processes which modern neuroscience identifies as left hemisphere brain activity. Tweedy discusses these topics in connection with neuro-anatomist Jill Bolte Taylor’s ‘Stroke of Insight’ - a TED talk and publication recounting her experience of a stroke following a major haemorrhage in the left side of her brain. The discussion of Blake’s responses to religion, to reason, and to language offer rich insight and reinterpretation of the psychological basis of the entity often referred to as ‘God’.
             The book is neatly divided into two parts, which are further divided into sub-topics. Part one, titled ‘The Looking-Glass,’ focuses on the nature and functions of the left hemisphere. Part two, titled ‘Down the Rabbit Hole,’ contextualizes and places the left hemisphere in the bigger picture. Tweedy elaborates more deeply in the second part, which also provides an examination of the main themes in the first part. The book is layered with Blake’s poetry and Tweedy’s interpretation of it. One underlying theme, Tweedy notes, is that we all participate in, benefit from, and contribute to an extended social identity which we help to develop and reflect. In addition, ordinary conversation plays a valuable and fundamental part in this identity.
             An interesting chapter, titled ‘Twilight of the Psychopaths’ discusses the "free-wheeling left hemisphere". This, Tweedy argues, leads to a subhuman aspect to divided rationality. He explains that the more purely rational Reason becomes, the more its manipulative and calculating nature emerges and is manifest. Furthermore, research into contemporary left-hemispheric brain processes and disorders reveals the subtle ways in which this aspect of a disengaged left hemisphere resembles the psychological state known as schizophrenia. Tweedy notes that Blake was highly critical of contemporary forms of rationality because of what he considered to be its increasingly dissociated and pathological nature. One of his main arguments is that beneath the rational processes and values, there is a form of actual insanity.
             According to Tweedy, entering the 'now' is the immensely simple but unfamiliar experience that Blake’s poetry both encourages and evokes. The figure of Urizen plays a crucial role in this process since it is Urizenic thought that currently keeps man trapped in the matrix of linearity, goals, wants, judgments, and, above all, suffering. Blake believed that on the level of being, everything is correlated and interwoven, and that all being is ultimately divine. To rewrite our own neurological and bodily processes is to rewrite and modify God, according to Blake. In Tweedy’s interpretation of Blake’s works, Tweedy states that recognizing humanity’s divinity is not an attribute, it is a mode of perception, and it is our duty to unleash it.

Tweedy, Roderick (2012). The God of the Left Hemisphere: Blake, Bolte Taylor, and the Myth of Creation.
London: Karnac Books Ltd.
ISBN: 978-1-78049-101-1.
Paperback: 332 pages.
Includes appendices and bibliography references.
Key words: left hemisphere, William Blake, Jill Bolte Taylor, Urizen, God, rationalizing

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Wachtel, Paul L. (2011). Inside the Session: What Really Happens in Psychotherapy.
             Reviewed by: Nataliya Rubinchik, Hunter College

Published psychology works often give unrealistic expectations to reader. By providing successful examples from therapies to teach the reader something, authors can unknowingly deceive even experienced readers. Dr Paul Wachtel provides a solution for students and clinicians alike. By publishing a book with three complete therapy sessions written verbatim with his complete commentary, Dr Wachtel gives readers a fair and accurate account of just what goes on inside the session and opens the door for true understanding.
             He explains that case studies and examples provided in texts usually do not accurately describe the anxiety a therapist might feel at not saying something he or she might have, or the loss at which they sometimes feel when there seems to be no breakthrough in sight. These are daily companions of every clinician, but most seem to hide them out of view when retelling their experiences. There is no ulterior motive to leaving out anxiety and unsuccessful treatments; they just have no place in textbooks, theses, and published papers.
             With this in mind, Dr Wachtel works to break down three of his therapy sessions for his readers as accurately as he can. He incorporates psychoanalytic, cognitive-behavioral, systematic, and experiential approaches in his sessions. His goal is to give readers an accurate account of what he calls the ‘whole arc’ of therapy sessions. ‘The moments of feeling unclear, frustrated, even incompetent, and the moments when the skies clear and the direction in which to move becomes apparent.
             The book is organized into three sections. The first section provides background research on psychotherapy and its factors and expectations. The second section is the full transcription of three separate therapy sessions, two with the one patient and one with a different patient. The third section contains reflections on the sessions and what they might say about Dr Wachtel. The first and third sections are organized by chapters and subsections, outlining exactly what Dr Wachtel is attempting to relay to his readers.
             Dr Wachtel dedicates chapters to the two aspects of therapy he finds most important: the role of anxiety and what it could mean for various patients and treatments, and the two-person perspective theory which suggests that what happens inside therapy is a result of the interaction between the client and the clinician. Dr Wachtel explains the research on both topics in a language comprehensible to students.
             The three sessions Dr Wachtel writes about in his book were filmed for an American Psychology Association psychotherapy video series to be used as a teaching device. This meant that the sessions were being recorded in real time with no means of calling ‘cut.’ Even if Dr Wachtel realized he made a mistake, he would be able to do nothing about it, just as in real therapy. He admits from the very start that this made him anxious. He explains that it’s easy to make a mistake in a relationship, it is easy to rupture a fragile connection, but it takes experience and sensitivity to fix the wound and let it heal and pass over.
             Dr Wachtel interweaves the therapy sessions he is presenting with the thoughts he had at the exact moments he had them. He separates them by a row of asterisks to allow readers the option of reading his comments immediately or forming their own opinions and coming back to the comments at the end. Dr Wachtel chose to include his commentary with the therapy primarily to show, as the teaching tool this book is meant to be, exactly how a therapist’s mind works while he or she is in session. Textbook examples disregard this as well, choosing to write their final, polished thoughts at the end of the session when everything feels like it adds up. Real life therapy, however, doesn’t work that way. And real life therapy is exactly what Dr Wachtel is working to relay to his readers.

Wachtel, Paul L. (2011). Inside the Session: What Really Happens in Psychotherapy.
Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
ISBN: 978-1-4338-0940-8.
Paperback: 283 pages.
Includes bibliographical references
Key words: psychotherapy, guide, therapy sessions, American Psychology Association

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